A Review on Nanoparticles and its Applications in Therapeutics as a Novel Drug Delivery System

 

Suresh A. Marnoor

Shree Ambabai Talim Sanstha’s, Diploma in Pharmacy College, Miraj, Dist.-Sangli, Maharashtra

*Corresponding Author E-mail: suresh.marnoor@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Though traditional systems used in development of various dosage forms to deliver the drug have been in use, the evolution in modern science and technology insist the pharmaceutical companies to focus on the novel approach. The aim for developing such delivery systems is to minimize drug degradation, harmful side-effects and to increase bioavailability.

 

KEYWORDS: Dosage forms, Drug Delivery, Novel Drug Delivery, Nanoparticles.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

What is a Drug Delivery System?

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect. It may involve scientific site-targeting within the body, or it might involve facilitating systemic pharmacokinetics.1

 

 

The drugs are delivered in a suitable formulation which is usually known as dosage form or drug delivery system.Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a Pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals.1

 

What is NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (NDDS)?

It is a system for delivery of drug other than conventional drug delivery system.Novel Drug delivery System (NDDS) refers to the approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effects.NDDS is a combination of advance technique and new dosage forms which are far better than conventional dosage forms.2

 

What is the Need of NDDS?

The conventional dosage forms provide drug release immediately and it causes fluctuation of drug level in blood depending upon dosage form.

 

 

Therefore to maintain the drug concentration within therapeutically effective range there is a need of novel drug delivery system.

 

Advantages of NDDS:

·       Decreased dosing frequency.

·       Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood.

·       Sustained and consistent blood level within the therapeutic window.

·       Enhanced bioavailability.

·       To achieve a targeted drug release.

·       Reduced side effects.

·       Improved patient compliance

 

List of NDDS:

·       Niosomes

·       Liposomes

·       Nanoparticles

·       Nanosphere

·       Microsphere

·       Microparticle

·       Prodrugs

·       Microemulsion

·       Nanosuspension

·       Micelles

·       Drug Loaded Erythrocytes

·       Fast dissolving Tablets

·       Iontophoresis

 

NANOPARTICLES as Novel Drug Delivery System:

 

 

Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer. The interfacial layer is an integral part of nanoscale matter, fundamentally affecting all of its properties. The interfacial layer typically consists of ions, inorganic and organic molecules.2

Nanoparticles are in the solid state and are either amorphous or crystalline. They are able to absorb and/or encapsulate a drug, thus protecting. In recent years, biodegradable polymeric Nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention as potential drug delivery devices in view of their application in the controlled release of drug, in targeting particular organ/tissues, as carrier of DNA in gene therapy, and in their ability to deliver proteins, peptides and genes through the peroral route.3

 

Classification of Nanoparticles:4

A. On the basis of size:

1.     Ultrafine particles are the same as Nanoparticles and between 1 and 100 nm in size.

2.     Fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nm.

3.     Coarse particles cover a range between 2,500 and 10,000 nm.

 

B. On the basis of structure-

1. One dimension Nanoparticles

One dimensional system (thin film or manufactured surfaces) has been used for decades. Thin films (sizes 1–100 nm) or monolayer is now common place in the field of solar cells offering, different technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, information storage systems, magneto-optic and optical device, fiber-optic systems.

 

2    Two dimension Nanoparticles e.g. Carbon nanotubes

3    Three dimension Nanoparticles e.g. Dendrimers, Quantum Dots, Fullerenes (Carbon 60), (QDs)

 

Advantages of Nanoparticles:5

·       They are biodegradable, non- toxic, site specific.

·       They are capable of targeting a drug to a specific site in the body.

·       They offer controlled rate of drug release.

·       Drug loading is high and drugs can be incorporated into the systems without any chemical reaction; this is an important factor for preserving the drug activity.

·       They offer better therapeutic effectiveness and overall pharmacological response/unit dose.

·       The system can be used for various routes of administration including oral, nasal, parenteral, intra ocular etc.

 

Nanoparticles & its Applications in Therapeutics:6

I .  Nanoparticles in cancer therapy:

Most anticancer drugs used in conventional chemotherapy have no tumour selectivity and are randomly distributed within the body, resulting in a reasonably low therapeutic index.

 

 

II. Nanotechnology in hypertension:

In the treatment of pulmonary atrial hypertension PAH, currently the most effective drugs have a very short life-cycle, difficult rendering systemic administration, these difficulties can be overcome by using nanotechnology.

 

 

 

III.  Nanoparticles for the treatment of osteoporosis:

There are no current effective prevention and treatment methods for this disease; even though the studies have been taking place since years. There are several major barriers that exist for the use of any pharmaceutical agents to stimulate new bone formation.

 

 

 

IV.  Applications of nanotechnology in diabetes:

Polymeric Nanoparticles have been used as carriers of insulin and the use of biodegradable polymeric Nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery has shown significant therapeutic potential.

 

 


 

Marketed Nanoparticle products:

Brand

Generic Name

Indication

Company

Innovator

Rapamune®

Rapamycin, Sirolimus

Immunosuppressant

Elan Nanosystems

Wyeth

Emend®

Aprepitant

Anti-emetic

Elan Nanosystems

Merck & Co.

Tricor®

Fenofibrate

Hypercholesterolemia

Abbott Laboratories

Abbott Laboratories

Megace ES®

Megestrol

Anti-anorexic

Elan Nanosystems

Par Pharmaceuticals

Triglide®

Fenofibrate

Hypercholesterolemia

IDD-P Skyepharma

Sciele Pharma Inc.

Avinza®

Morphine Sulphate

Phychostimulant

Elan Nanosystems

King Pharmaceuticals

Focalin

Dexmethyl- Phenidate HCl

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

(ADHD).

Elan Nanosystems

Novartis

Ritalin

Methyl Phenidate HCl

CNS Stimulant

Elan Nanosystems

Novartis

Zanaflex

CapusulesTM

Tizanidine HCl

Muscle Relaxant

Elan Nanosystems

Acorda

 


V. Nanoparticles in delivery of herbal drugs:

The advantages of the Nanoparticles are that it improves the absorbency of the herbal formulation, reduces the dose of formulation and increases its solubility.

 

 

CONCLUSION:

The method by which a drug is delivered can have a significant effect on its efficacy. Novel drug delivery systems will present an opportunity for formulation scientists to overcome the many challenges associated with current antihypertensive drug therapy, thereby     improving the management of patients with hypertension in future.

 

Nanoparticles represent a promising drug delivery system of controlled and targeted release.  Also they are in lower drug toxicity, reduced cost of treatments, improved bioavailability.

 

REFERENCES:

1.     Available from-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_delivery on 18/10/2017

2.     Available from-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanoparticle retrived on 18/10/2017

3.     Manivannam Ragasamy and Kulgalur Ganesh Parthiban, Recent advances in novel drug delivery systems.

4.     Chapter 2 Nanoparticles Types, Classification, Characterization, Fabrication Methods and Drug Delivery Applications

5.     Teachers Handbook HSS 302 - NQ2014 Drug Delivery System PSS Central Institute of Vocational Education, Shyamla Hills, Bhopal

6.     Nano Based Drug Delivery Edited by Jitendra Naik, IAPC Publishing is a part of International Association of Physical Chemists

7.     Kumar Babu G, Advancements in Novel Drug Delivery Systems and Opportunities for Indian Pharmaceutical companies, Research and Reviews: Journal of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology.

 

 

 

Received on 29.01.2019          Accepted on 27.02.2019         

© Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Tech.  2019; 9(2):125-128.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2019.00021.7