Formulation and Evaluation of Turmeric Emulgel

 

Rutuja Saurabh Shah

Asst. Proff. Dept. of Pharmaceuitcs, Anandi B. Pharmacy College, Kale.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: shaha.rutu@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The aim of the present research work was to investigate the potential of emulgel in enhancing the topical delivery of Turmeric. Emulgel formulations of Turmeric were prepared using Carbopol 934 as a gelling agent. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgel was investigated using. The main purpose of this research was to design to formulate and evaluate a topical gellified emulsions (Emulgel) of Turmeric by using high molecular weight water soluble polymer Carbapol 934. This Carbapol possesses very high viscosity, transparency, film forming properties at low concentration and reported to be useful in formation of gel with an objective to increase transparency and spreadability. All the prepared emulgel showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. The influence of the type of gelling agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated and carbopol 934 showed good results not only in the drug release but also in physical evaluation parameters. From the drug release studies, F3 formulation showed 90.05% drug release in 6 h with good clarity and physical appearance and viscosity 2250cps.Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological study, in vitro drug release, and anti-inflammatory activity in all the prepared emulgel remained unchanged upon storage for 3 months. It was finally concluded that the formulation F3 with 1%w/w Carbopol 934 was found to be more promising formulations as it shows better physicochemical characteristics and antiinflammatory activity compared to other formulations.

 

KEYWORDS: Turmeric, Emulgel, Topical gel, Anti-inflammatory.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Transdermal drug delivery system has been inexistence for a long time. In the past, the most commonly applied systems were topically applied lotions, creams and ointments for dermatological disorders. The occurrence of systemic side-effects with some of these formulations is indicative of absorption of the drugs through the skin, which lead to the idea of TDDS. In a broad sense, the term transdermal delivery system includes all topically administered drug formulations intended to deliver the active ingredient into the general circulation.

 

Transdermal therapeutic systems have been designed to provide controlled continuous delivery of drugs via the skin to the systemic circulation. Emulgel has emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drug. When gel and emulsion are used in combined form they are referred as Emulgel. Emulsion in gel have emerged as one of the most interesting topical drug delivery system as it have dual release control system i.e. emulsion and gel. In fact, the presence of a gelling agent in the water phase converts a classical emulsion into an emulgel. Both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions are used as vehicles to deliver various drugs to the skin. Emulsions possess a certain degree of elegance and are easily washed off whenever desired. They also have a high ability to penetrate the skin. Emulgel for dermatological use have several favorable properties such as being thixotropic, greaseless, easily spreadable, easily removable, emollient, non staining, water-soluble, longer shelf life, bio-friendly, transparent and pleasing appearance. The present review highlights the importance of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggests that the beneficial effect of curcumin is mediated by the up regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) activation.1-6

 

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is widely used popular Indian medicinal plant which belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae. Indian turmeric is preferred due to its high Curcumin content as compared to other countries. Curcumin is small molecular weight polyphenolic compound and lipophilic in nature. This active constituent of turmeric is isolated from curcuma longa and it provides colour to turmeric. Curcumin has various medicinal properties and shows Anti inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anticancer activities. The yellow color of the turmeric is due to the curcumin compound. Curcumin (C21H20O6) was first described in 1910 by Lampe and Milobedeska and shown to be a diferuloylmethane, 1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione and is practically insoluble in water. Curcumin is a bis-α-β-unsaturated β-diketone; under acidic and neutral conditions. The mechanism by which curcumin induces its anti-inflammatory effects is yet to be elucidated. Studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been associated with anti-inflammatory effects. PPARs belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors consisting of three genes that give rise to three different subtypes, PPAR-α, PPAR-δ, and PPAR-γ. Among them, PPAR-γ is the most widely studied form. Upon ligand binding, PPAR-γ forms heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor and binds to a peroxisome proliferation response element (PPRE) in a gene promoter leading to regulation of gene transcription. In that regard, we have recently shown that gene and protein levels of PPAR-γ in the liver decreased by approximately 50% at 20 hours after the onset of sepsis. Treatment with curcumin in an animal model of wound healing produced large infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and fibroblast compared to untreated wounds. The treatment resulted in enhanced expression of fibronectin and collagen by fibroblasts and increased the rate of formation of granulation tissue suggesting an enhancement in wound healing. Emulgel or gellified emulsion is stable one and better vehicle for hydrophobic or water insoluble drugs as Turmeric. Also emulgel have a high patient acceptability since they possess the advantages of both emulsions and gels. Therefore, they have been recently used as vehicles to deliver various drugs to the skin.7-10

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Materials:

Ethanolic extract of Turmeric powder and distilled water were prepared in the laboratory of Department of Pharmacy., Oleic acid, Propylene glycol, Methyl salicylate, Cetostearylalcohol, Tween20, Carbopol 934, Distilled water, Propyl paraben, Triethanolamine.

 

Equipment Used: Electrical balance (Citizen), Hot air oven (BIO Tecnics India), PH-meter (Equiptronics Model NO. EQ-602), Sonicator (Citizen), Magnetic stirrer (Remi Electrotecnik LTD), UV spectrophotometer-1800 (Shimadzo Japan). Plant material and identification turmeric powder was purchased from the local market.

 

Methods:

Extract preparation and Solubility study:

Turmeric powder used for extraction. The ethanolic extract was prepared by maceration process. The extract is filtered and dried in hot air oven. It was stored at refrigerator until use. Curcumin is coming from the Curcuma longa which gives golden color and have the biological importance. The solubility study of turmeric extract less in water but in phosphate buffer PH 7.4 it was freely soluble by using sonication process. The throughout experiment is carried out in PH 7.411-15

 

Formulation design of Turmeric Emulgel preparation:

1) Gel preparation: 

The Carbapol gel was prepared by dispersing required quantity given in formulation table of Carbapol 934 in given quantity of purified water with constant stirring at a moderate speed and soaked overnight.

 

2) Emulsion preparation: The oil phase of emulsion was prepared by mixing oleic acid, methyl salicylate, tween 20 and previously melted cetostearyl alcohol.  Methyl paraben, propyl paraben were mixed in propylene glycol this added this mixture was dissolved in aqueous phase. Then oil phase was mixed slowly with aqueous phase with constant temperature (50- 600C).

 

3) Emulgel preparation:

The obtained emulsion was mixed with the gel subjected to homogenization for 2 hours to get Turmeric Emulgel. The pH was adjusted to 6-7 using triethanolamine.16-19

 

Pre-formulation Study:

Determination of λmax of turmeric by UV-Visible Spectroscopy:

a)   Preparation of 1000μg/ml turmeric stock solution

b)   Preparation of 100μg/ml turmeric standard solution

C)  Determination of absorption maxima of turmeric using UV-Visible spectroscopy

 

Calibration curve of turmeric: From the standard solution (100μg/ml) 2,4,6,8,10and 12ml was withdrawn and transferred to 100ml volumetric flask and final volume was making up to 100ml with phosphate buffer, this becomes 2,4,6,8,10 and 12μg/ml and absorbance’s were noted at 425nm wavelength and graph was plotted between concentration vs. absorbance

 

Table 1: Formulation of turmeric emulgel

Ingredients

F1

F2

F3

Turmeric %

0.4

0.4

0.4

Oleic acid (%)

20

20

20

Oleic acid (%)

20

20

20

Methyl salicylate (%)

10

10

10

Propylene glycol (%)

5

5

5

Methyl salicylate (%)

10

10

10

Cetostearyl alcohol (%)

4

4

4

Tween 20 (%)

3.2

3.2

3.2

Carbopol 934 (%)

1.4

1.6

1.8

Distilled water (q.s) (%)

100

100

100

Propyl paraben (%)

0.02

0.02

0.02

Methyl paraben (%)

0.02

0.02

0.02

Triethanolamine

Adjust pH 6-7

 

Characterization of Emulgel:

1) Physical appearance: All the formulations were evaluated for color, homogeneity and consistency. The physical appearance of all the formulations was found to be, creamy white, homogenous and consistent.

 

2) PH Determination: pH evaluation of the topical formulation is more important as it may cause irritation to the skin if varied from normal skin pH conditions. Furthermore the polymer like carbopol gives consistency if the pH is between 5-7 so all the formulations were evaluated for the pH.

 

3) Spreadability: Spreadability is determined by apparatus suggested by Mutimer et al (1956) which is suitably modified in the laboratory and used for the study. It consists of a wooden block, which is provided by a pulley at one end. By this method, spreadability is measured on the basis of ‘Slip’ and ‘Drag’ characteristics of emulgel. A ground glass slide is fixed on this block. An excess of emulgel (about 2 gm.) under study is placed on this ground slide. The emulgel is then sandwiched between this slide and another glass slide having the dimension of fixed ground slide and provided with the hook. A 1 Kg weight is placed on the top of the two slides for 5 minutes to expel air and to provide a uniform film of the emulgel between the slides. Excess of the emulgel is scrapped off from the edges. The top plate is then subjected to pull of 80 gm. With the help of string attached to the hook and the time (in seconds) required by the top slide to cover a distance of 7.5 cm be noted. A shorter interval indicates better spreadability. Spreadability was calculated by using the formula,

 

S=M*L/T

Where, S = spreadability, M = Weight tied to upper slide, L = Length of glass slides, T = Time taken to separate the slides completely from each other.

 

4) Drug Content Determination: Drug concentration in emulgel was measured by UV spectrophotometer. turmeric content in emulgel was measured by dissolving Known quantity of emulgel in solvent (methanol) by Sonication. Absorbance was measured after suitable dilution at 425nm in UV/VIS spectrophotometer (UV-1800, Shimadzu Corporation, Japan.

 

5) Swelling Index: To determine the swelling index of prepared topical emulgel 1 gm. of gel is taken on porous aluminum foil and then placed separately in a petri plate containing 10 ml 0.1N NaOH. Then samples were removed from petri plate at different time intervals and put it on dry place for some time after it reweighed. Swelling index is calculated as follows:

 

Swelling Index (SW)%= [(Wt. – Wo) / Wo] × 100.

 

Where,

(SW) % = Equilibrium percent swelling,

Wo = Original weight of emulgel at zero time,

Wt. = Weight of swollen emulgel after time t.

 

7) Extrudability:

It is a usual empirical test to measure the force required to extrude the material from tube. The method applied for determination of applied shear in the region of the rheogram corresponding to a shear rate exceeding the yield value and exhibiting consequent plug flow. In the present study, the method adopted for evaluating emulgel formulation for extrudability is based upon the quantity in percentage of emulgel and emulgel extruded from lacquered aluminum collapsible tube on application of weight in grams required to extrude at least 0.5 cm ribbon of emulgel in 10 seconds. More quantity extruded better is extrudability. The measurement of extrudability of each formulation is in triplicate and the average values are presented. The extrudability is than calculated by using the following formula:

 

Extrudability = Applied weight to extrude emulgel from tube (in gm.)/Area (in cm 2).

8) Viscosity: The viscosity of gel during handling, transport and storage is an important criterion. The viscosity of different Emulgel formulations was determined by using Brook field viscometer. The Emulgel were rotated at 10rpm and viscosities were measured.

 

9) Drug Release Kinetic Study:

To analyze the mechanism of drug release from the topical gel, the release data were fitted to the following equations:

a) Zero-Order Model: Drug dissolution from dosage forms that do not disaggregate and release the drug slowly can be represented by the equation:

 

Qt = Q0 + K0 t

 

Where,

Qt is the amount of drug dissolved in time t,

Q0 is the initial amount of drug in the solution (most times, Q0 = 0) and

K0 is the zero order release constant expressed in units of concentration/time.

 

To study the release kinetics, data obtained from in vitro drug release studies were plotted as cumulative amount of drug released versus time.

 

Application: This relationship can be used to describe the drug dissolution of several types of modified release pharmaceutical dosage forms, as in the case of some transdermal systems, as well as matrix tablets with low soluble drugs in coated forms, osmotic systems, etc, coated forms, osmotic systems.

 

b) First –Order Model: This model has been used to describe absorption/elimination of some drugs, although it is difficult to conceptualize this mechanism on a theoretical basis. The release of the drug which followed first order kinetics can be expressed by the equation:

 

dC/dt = -KC

 

Where K is first order rate constant expressed in units of time-1.

This equation can also be expressed as:

 

log C = log C0 – Kt / 2.303

 

Where

C0 is the initial concentration of drug,

K is the first order rate constant, and

t is the time.

 

The data obtained are plotted as log cumulative percentage of drug remaining vs. time which would yield a straight line with a slope of - K/2.303.

 

Application: This relationship can be used to describe the drug dissolution in pharmaceutical dosage forms such as those containing water-soluble drugs in porous matrices.

 

c) Higuchi Model: The first example of a mathematical model aimed to describe drug release from a matrix system was proposed by Higuchi in 1961. Initially conceived for planar systems, it was extended to different geometrics and porous systems.

 

This model is based on the hypotheses that:

(i)        Initial drug concentration in the matrix is much higher than drug solubility;

(ii)      Drug diffusion takes place only in one dimension (edge effect must be negligible);

(iii)    Drug particles are much smaller than system thickness;

(iv)    Matrix swelling and dissolution are negligible;

(v)      Drug diffusivity is constant; and

(vi)    Perfect sink conditions always attained in the release environment

 

Accordingly, model expression is given by the equation:

 

ft = Q = A √ [D (2C - Cs)*Cs t]

 

Where

Q is the amount of drug released in time t per unit area A,

C is the drug initial conc.

Cs is the drug solubility in the matrix media and

D is the diffusivity of the drug molecules (diffusion coefficient) in the matrix base.

In a general way, it is possible to simplify the Higuchi model as (generally known as The Simplified Higuchi Model):

 

ft = Q = KH * t 1/2

 

Where KH is the Higuchi dissolution constant. The data obtained were plotted as cumulative percentage drug release versus square root of time.

 

Application:

This relationship can be used to describe the drug dissolution from several types of modified release pharmaceutical dosage forms, as in the case of some transdermal systems and matrix tablets with water soluble drugs.

 

d) Hixson and Crowell Model: Hixson and Crowell (1931) recognized that the Particle’s regular area is proportional to the cube root of its volume. They derived the equation:

 

W01/3 - Wt1/3 = k t

 

Where,

W0 is the initial amount of drug in the pharmaceutical dosage form,

Wt is the remaining amount of drug in the pharmaceutical dosage form at time t, and

k (kappa) is a constant incorporating the surface - volume relation.

 

The equation describes the release fromsystems where there is a change in surface area and diameter of particles or tablets. To study the release kinetics, data obtained from in vitro drug release studies were plotted as cube root of drug percentage remaining in matrix (Wt1/3) versus time (t).

 

Application:

This expression applies to pharmaceutical dosage form such as tablets, where the dissolution occurs in planes that are parallel to the drug surface if the tablet dimensions diminish proportionally, in such a manner that the initial geometrical form keeps constant all the time.

 

e) Korsmeyer-Peppas Model: Korsmeyer et al. (1983) derived a simple semi-emperical relationship which relates exponentially drug release from a polymeric system with respect to relapsed time. To find out the mechanism of drug release, first 60% drug release data were fitted in Korsmeyer - Peppas model

 

Mt / M∞ = K * tn

 

Where

Mt / M∞ is a fraction of drug released at time t,

K is the release rate constant and

n is the release exponent.

 

The n value is used to characterize different release for cylindrical shaped matrices. This above equation can also be expressed as:

 

Log Mt – log M∞ = n log t + log K

 

To find out the exponent of n, the portion of the release curve, where Mt / M∞ < 0.6 should only be used. To study the release kinetics, data obtained from in vitro drug release studies were plotted as log cumulative percentage drug release versus log time. This model is generally used to analyze the release of polymeric dosage form, when the release mechanism is not well known or when more than one type of release phenomenon is involved.

 

10) In-vitro Drug Diffusion Study: Cellophane membrane obtained from sigma chemicals was used for this study. In modified diffusion cell, 1 gm of gel was kept in donor compartment. The entire surface of membrane was in contact with the receptor compartment containing 30ml of pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. The receptor compartment was continuously stirred (530 rpm) using a magnetic stirrer. The temperature maintained was 37 ± 1°C. The study was carried out for 6 hrs with the interval of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hrs. The sample was withdrawn 5ml at predetermined period of time and same volume was replaced with fresh pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. The absorbance of withdrawn sample was measured at 425 nm to estimate turmeric.

 

 

RESULT:

Pre-formulation Study:

1 Construction of calibration curve:

 

Table 2: Calibration Curve of turmeric in Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4

Sr. No.

Concentration (μg/ml)

Absorbance

1

2

0.094

2

4

0.142

3

6

0.215

4

8

0.312

5

10

0.360

6

12

0.412

 

 

Characterization of Emulgel:

1) Physical appearance:

Table 3: Physical appearance data

Batch No.

Colour

Homogeneity

Consistency

Phase

 

 

 

 

Separation

F1

Yellowish

Homogeneous

Smooth

-

F2

Yellowish

Homogeneous

Smooth

-

F3

Yellowish

Homogeneous

Smooth

-

 

2) PH determination:

Table No: 3 pH of Emulgel

Batch no.

PH

 

 

F1

5.22±0.25

F2

6.79±0.58

F3

6.83±0.12

Data is expressed as mean±S.D(n=3)

 

3) Spreadability:

Table No :4 Spreadabity:

Batch no.

Time (sec.)

Lenth (cm)

Weight (gm)

F1

42

6.8

20

F2

45

6.8

20

F3

35

6.8

20

Data is expressed as mean±S.D(n=3)

 

4) Drug Content Determination:

Table No 5: Drug Content Determination:

Batch no.

Drug content (%)

F1

93.56±1.02

F2

89.40±0.96

F3

98.90±1.26

Data is expressed as mean±S.D(n=3)

 

 

6) Swelling Index:

Table no 6: Swelling index of formulation

Batch

Time

Initial weight of

Final weight of

Avg.

Swelling

no.

(min)

emulgel (gm.)

emulgel (gm.)

Weight

Index (%)

 

10

1.36

2.12

 

 

F1

 

 

 

1.99

32.75±1.26

20

1.36

1.98

 

30

1.36

1.88

 

 

 

10

1.54

1.54

 

 

F2

 

 

 

2.01

30.51±1.74

20

1.54

1.94

 

30

1.54

2.56

 

 

 

10

1.16

1.67

 

 

F3

20

1.16

1.52

1.54

46.32±0.76

 

30

1.16

1.44

 

 

Data is expressed as mean± S.D(n=3)

7) Extrudability:

Table no 7: Data for Extrudability

Batch no.

Extrudability(cm2)

F1

16.8±0.88

F2

15.0±0.46

F3

18.2±0.52

Data is expressed as mean±S.D(n=3)

 

8) Viscosity:

Table 8: Rheological study data

Batch no.

Viscosity(cp)

F1

1750

F2

1856

F3

2250

 

9) Drug Release Kinetic Study:


Table no 9: Kinetic study of the In vitro release data of Turmeric from its different formulae.

 

 

 

Correlation coefficient (R2)

 

 

Formulation

Zero

order

First

order

Higuchi

Hixson and

Korsmeye

 

kinetic

 

kinetic

 

Model

crowel

r-Peppas

 

 

 

 

 

 

model

model

F1

0.9943

 

0.9019

 

0.9750

0.9570

0.9807

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F2

0.9861

 

0.9169

 

0.9752

0.9520

0.9763

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F3

0.9991

 

0.8606

 

0.9880

0.9360

0.9608

 


10) In-vitro Drug Diffusion Study:

Table no 10: In Vitro drug release (%)

Times in

F1

F2

F3

(hrs.)

(%)

(%)

(%)

 

 

 

 

1

7.05±0.22

09.82±0.22

06.13±0.38

2

21.17±0.61

17.43±0.65

23.15±0.69

3

33.43±0.36

37.79±0.23

41.68±0.33

4

54.73±0.12

49.83±0.22

57.44±0.22

5

64.97±0.86

58.12±0.62

72.37±0.42

6

82.17±0.54

72.54±0.32

90.05±0.26

Data is expressed as mean ±S.D (n=3)

 

DISCUSSION:

1. Physical appearance:

The prepared turmeric emulgel formulations were white viscous creamy preparation with a smooth and homogeneous appearance. The pH values of all prepared formulation ranged from 5 to 7 which are considered acceptable to avoid the risk of irritation upon application to the skin because adult skin pH is average 5-7.

 

2. Spreadability:

The values of spreadability indicate that the emulgel is easily spreadable by small amount of shear. Spreadability of F3 was 3.88cm/sec, indicating spreadability of emulgel containing turmeric was good as compared to the marketed gel.

 

3. Drug content determination:

The drug content in emulgel was found in range of 67.87% to 89.28%. The higher drug content found in F3 i.e. 89.28

 

4. Stability studies:

Stability studies of optimized formulation were performed. It can be observed that the emulgel formulation showed no major alteration in relation to the pH, consistency and in vitro release study. The formulation shows stability for the period of 1months. No significant changes in the pH of formulations were observed for 1months in all storage conditions.

 

5. Swelling index:

The swelling index of optimized formulation of emulgel was found in F3 i.e. 46.32%

 

6. Extrudability study (Tube test):

During the test, Optimized batch 18.2gm/cm weight required to extrude 1 cm ribbon of emulgel in 10 sec from aluminium collapsible tube, From the result consider that more quantity of emulsion based gel extrude at little applied pressure on tube which shows better emulgel have a good extrudability.

 

7. viscosity:

The measurement of viscosity of the prepared emulgel was done with Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield DV-E viscometer). The highest viscosity was found in Emulgel F3

8. Drug Release Kinetic study:

The release data analysis was carried out using the various kinetic models i.e. using cumulative % drug release vs. time (zero order kinetic model); log cumulative % drug remaining vs. time (first order kinetic model) and cumulative % drug release vs. square root of time (Higuchi model). The R2 values are tabulated in table. All formulae showed best fitting to kinetics.

 

9. Drug Release:

The in vitro release profiles of Turmeric from its various emulgel formulations are represented in the better release of the drug from all emulgel formulation can be observed and the emulgel formulation can be ranked in the following descending order Where the amounts of the drug released after 6 hours were 90.05%, 72.56%, 82.17% respectively.

 

Formulation of optimized batch:

 

 

The present work deals with the formulation and evaluation of Turmeric topical Emulgel using gelling agent like carbapol 934 in different concentrations and all the raw materials are of standard grad as supplied by manufacturer. The drug was found to be freely soluble in PBS (pH 5.5), and insoluble in water. The λmax for drug in PBS (pH7.4) was 425nm. The spreadability of formulations ranges from 3.02- 3.88g.cm/sec. The higher spreadability of emulgel formulation (F3) is 3.88 g.cm/sec. The highest viscosity was found in Emulgel F3 it may be due to highlevel of the carbopol concentration. The higher drug content determination in emulgel F3 are 98.90%. Topical gel formulation was prepared by using carbapol 934 in different concentrations the formulated three batches shows yellowish in appearance. optimized batch F3 shows yellowish in appearance. pH of all three batches was found between 3–5PH of optimized batch F3 was found 6.83 which lies in normal PH of skin. Viscosity is important parameter for characterizing the gels as it affect spreadability, extrudability and release of the drug, all the formulated batches should increase viscosity as the concentration of gelling agent increased optimized batch F3 show ideal viscosity. Emulgel with high consistency may not extrude from the tube easily, where as low viscous gel may show quickly extrudabilty of emulgel. Optimized batch F3 show better extrudability than other two batches. Formulation with less concentration of gelling agent was found to be good and with high concentration of gelling agent it was satisfactory. Optimized batch F3 show ideal gelling agent concentration 400mg all the prepared emulgel formulations showed uniformity of emulgel content. Emulgel will act as depot of drug which releases drug in sustained manner. Hence the optimized formulation may be used to treat the topical Inflammation diseases.

 

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Received on 17.03.2021            Modified on 15.05.2021           

Accepted on 14.06.2021      ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 11(3):213-219.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5713.2021.00035