Formulation, Optimitziation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Anti-Dandruff Shampoo

 

Arpit Gawshinde*, Dinesh kumar Mishra, Neha Kamalpuria, Nadeem Farooqui, Surbhi Choursiya

Indore Institute of Pharmacy, Indore (M.P.)

*Corresponding Author E-mail: arpitgawshinde95@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Psidium Guajava, family Myrtaceae and Glycyrrhiza glabra family Leguminosae has been reported to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Gauva and Liquiorice extracts have been used to treat antimicrobial infections. It contain several chemicals compound such as flavonoids, tannins, phenols, triterpenes, saponins, to take the benefit of the nature of extract. Psidium Guajava and Glycyrrhiza glabra prepare shampoo incorporating in the herbal constituent base and evaluate this natural herbal shampoo. The herbal shampoo formulations comprising of hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium Guajava and Glycyrrhiza glabra (ethanol:water 80:20v/v), coconut oil, castor oil, cymbopogon citrates oil  were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as visual appearance, pH, viscosity, % of solids content, foaming capacity and the results showed that the formulation F4 of anti-dandruff herbal shampoo contains all good characters of an ideal shampoo and it was found to be harmless, more effective, ease of manufacturing and economical compared to synthetic antidandruff shampoo.

 

KEYWORDS: Dandruff, Herbal anti-dandruff shampoo, Lemon grass oil, Liquorices and Guava leaf.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Dandruff is a chronic scalp condition, which involves excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp. It is caused by a fungus called Malassezia Restricta and Malassezia Globosa. Malassezia formerly called Pityrosporum is a yeast causing infection of skin and scalp. Dandruff is caused due to excessive shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp. It affects 5% of the population and mostly occurs after puberty, between 20 to 30 years, and dandruff affects males more than females. The skin of scalp renews itself about once a month. Usually, scalp sheds dead cells in nearly invisible way, but sometimes cell turnover becomes unusually rapid and dead cells are shed as visible flakes called dandruff. Warm and humid atmosphere, overcrowding, and poor personal hygiene promote the growth of Malassezia.1,2

 

Anti-dandruff shampoo is a type of shampoo which contains anti-dandruff agent and it is mainly used to prevent or treat dandruff from the scalp of hair. Two types of anti-dandruff shampoos are commercially available.

 

A. Synthetic anti-dandruff shampoo

B. Herbal anti-dandruff shampoo

 

Herbal anti-dandruff shampoos:

Herbal anti-dandruff shampoos are the cosmetic formulations which contain herbal ingredients such as plant extracts and essential oil. These herbal shampoos are generally used to remove the dandruff, to add natural color to the hair, to remove the extra oil content of the hair, for the healthy growth of the hair, to remove the dust and scales of the scalp, to prevent hair falling, to impart softness and smoothness to the hair shaft, etc. They can penetrate to the root shafts, stimulate the sebaceous glands, enhance the blood circulation and impart greater strength to the hair root and the shaft. They are also used against alopecia, thinning, clubbing, graying of hair, hair shaft roughness and breaking. There are large numbers of plants which have beneficial effects on hair and  commonly used in shampoos.3,4

 

Psidium Guajava, family Myrtaceae has been reported to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Psidium Guajava and its extracts have been used to treat infections. It contain several chemicals compound such as flavonoids, tannins, phenols, triterpenes, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, vitamins, fiber or fatty acids, resins and glycosides. Guava leaves and fruits are very important due to high nutritional values via out the world.5,6

 

Shampooing is the most common form of hair treatment. Shampoos have primarily been products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. Formulating cosmetics using completely natural raw materials is a difficult task. The challenge lies in selecting materials that can be rationally justified as ‘natural’ and formulating them into cosmetics whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic counterparts. Selecting the evaluation parameters of a shampoo is a challenging task, simply because of the multitude of both subjective and instrumental test methodologies available for this purpose. A more radical approach in popularizing herbal shampoo would be to change the consumer expectations from a shampoo, with emphasis on safety and efficacy.7

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Leaves of Psidium Guajava, family Myrtaceae and root of Glycyrrhiza Glabra family Leguminosae were collected and washed with tap water and shade dried. Shade dried material was placed into a blender to be grounded into powder and stored in air tight container for further use. The powder was macerate used ethanol and water for ratio 80:20v/v.  Filtered with muslin cloth and filtrate was allowed to centrifuge at 2000 rpm at 25C. The supernatant was collected and incorporated in the shampoo base formula Table (1). Extract was used for shampoo formulation. Potassium hydroxide, glycerin, ethyl alcohol, methyl paraben, lemon grass oil, coconut oil and castor oil were purchased from Loba   chemicals.6 8,9

 

Method of preparation of antidandruff herbal shampoo:

Coconut oil and castor oil were saponified with potassium hydroxide using reflux condenser. After complete saponification, glycerin was incorporated with stirring followed by mixing of guava leaves and liquiorice extract. Then add ethyl alcohol, methyl paraben used as preservative and lemon grass oil used for masking the pungent smell of extract. Six different formulations F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6 were prepared taking of extract respectively as shown in table 1 given below:10,11,12

 


Table 1: Composition of Antidandruff Herbal Shampoo

Ingredients

F1 % w/v

F2 % w/v

F3 % w/v

F4 % w/v

F5 % w/v

F6 % w/v

Psidium Guajava

1

1

1

1

1

1

Glycyrrhiza Glabra

1

1

1

1

1

1

Coconut oil

5

10

15

5

10

15

Castor oil

3

3

3

5

5

5

Potassium hydroxide

3

3

3

3

3

3

Glycerin

2

2

2

2

2

2

Ethyl alcohol

4

4

4

4

4

4

Lemongrass oil

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Methylparaben

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

Distilled Water

100

100

100

100

100

100

 


Evaluation Parameters:

Phytochemical Evaluation in Hydroalcoholic Extract:

Various tests were performed as mentioned in Table 2 to identify the phytoconstituents present in the products and their effect is shown on the body. Every plant exhibits certain phytochemical properties, which show a number of beneficial effects.4,8,13,14


 

Table 2: Hydroalcoholic Extract in Guava and Liquiroice

S. No.

Test

Hydroalcoholic Extract

(Guava)

Hydroalcoholic Extract

(Liquiroice)

1.

Alkaloids

A) Wagner’s Test:

B) Hager’s Test:

 

-Ve

-Ve

 

-Ve

-Ve

2.

Glycosides

A) Legal’s Test:

 

-Ve

 

+Ve

3.

Flavonoids

A) Lead acetate Test:

B) Alkaline Reagent Test:

 

+Ve

+Ve

 

-Ve

+Ve

4.

Saponins 

A) Froth Test:

 

+Ve

 

-Ve

5.

Phenolics

A) Ferric Chloride Test:

 

+Ve

 

+Ve

6.

Proteins

A) Xanthoproteic Test:

 

-Ve

 

+Ve

7.

Carbohydrate

A) Fehling’s Test:

 

+Ve

 

+Ve

8.

Diterpenes

A) Copper acetate Test:

 

-Ve

 

-Ve

 

Characterization of Formulated Antidandruff Herbal Shampoo:

Prepared 1% v/v solution of shampoo formulations by mixing, 2ml (40 drops) of shampoo with 200ml of distilled water. The shampoo was taken in the beaker and then slowly added distilled water. After thorough mixing of shampoo and water then all the evaluation parameters were determined.2,3,7,15,16

 

1. Visual Appearance:

The physical appearance of prepared formulation was evaluated for their color, odor and texture. All evaluations were reported in table 5.

 

2. pH:

1% v/v shampoo solution was used to determine the pH by using the pH meter and results were noted in table 5.

 

3. % Solids Content:

Weighed a clean dry evaporating dish and recorded the initial weight of evaporating dish. 4 gm. of shampoo formulation (not the 1% solution) was taken in the evaporating dish. Weighed the dish and shampoo and recorded initial weight of shampoo and dish. Calculated the exact weight of the shampoo only and recorded the initial weight of shampoo only. Put the evaporating dish with shampoo on the hot plate until the liquid portion has evaporated. After drying, weighed the dish and shampoo solids and results were noted noted in table 5.

 

4. Foaming Capacity:

Take 50ml of the 1% v/v shampoo solution in a 250ml graduated cylinder and recorded the volume. Then covered the cylinder with hand and shaken 10 times. The total volume of the contents was recorded after shaking. Calculated the volume of the foam and results were noted in table 5.

 

5. Visual Stability:

The prepared shampoo was tested for the visual stability for 21 days at room temperature with relative humidity 65 ± 5 and observed for color change and pH. There were no changes in color and pH of shampoo within 21 days and no any phase separation between oil and water and the results were noted in table 5.

 

7. Viscosity:

The viscosity of the shampoo was determined by using Brookfield Viscometer LVDV. The viscosity of shampoo was measured at room temperature i.e. 25 ± 2°C with varying rpm and torque.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Antifungal activity of Polyherbal antidandruff shampoo17,18

 

Table 3: Media preparation (broth and agar media):

Ingredients

Quantity

Agar

2 gm

Potato infusion

20 gm

Dextrose

2 gm

Distilled water

100 ml

pH

7

 

The flask containing medium become cotton plugged and turned into placed in autoclave for sterilization at 15 lbs/inch2 (121°C) for 15 min. After sterilization, the media in flask turned into immediately poured (20ml/ plate) into sterile Petri dishes on aircraft surface. The poured plates had been left at room temperature to solidify and incubate at 37°C in a single day to test the sterility of plates. The plates had been dried at 50°C for half-hour earlier than use. The microbial cultures used within the take a look at had been obtained in lyophilized shape. With the help aseptic techniques the lyophilized cultures are inoculated in sterile potato dextrose broth than incubated for 48 hours at 28°C. After incubation the increase is observed in the shape of turbidity. These broth cultures had been similarly inoculated on to the nutrient and potato dextrose agar plates with loop full of microbes and similarly incubated for subsequent 24 hours at 37°C to gain the pure way of life and stored as stocks which can be for use in in addition research paintings.

 

The properly diffusion method changed into used to determine the antifungal hobby of poly herbal shampoo organized from Psidium Guajava and Glycyrrhiza Glabra using popular procedure. There were 2 concentration used that are 1% and 0.5% polyherbal shampoo in anti biogram studies. It’s essential feature is the setting of wells with the antibiotics at the surfaces of agar without delay after inoculation with the organism tested. Undiluted over night broth cultures need to in no way be used as an inoculums. The plates were incubated at 28°C for 48 hr. After which tested for clear zones of inhibition around the wells impregnated with particular attention of drug.

 

Table 4: Anti-fungal activity of standard and optimized polyherbal antidandruff shampoo against Candida albicans

S. No.

Drug/ Formulation

Zone of inhibition (mm)

1.

Fluconazole (20 µg/ml)

19 ± 0.47

2.

1% Polyherbal shampoo

15 ± 0.86

3.

0.5% Polyherbal shampoo

10 ± 0.5

 

Figure 1: Anti-fungal activity of standard and optimized polyherbal antidandruff shampoo against Candida albicans

 

Table 5: Evaluation parameters of (F4) Polyherbal Antidandruff Shampoo

S. No.

Parameters

Observations

1.

Color

Light Brown

2.

Clogging

Absent

3.

Texture

Smooth

4.

Homogenicity

Good

5.

pH

5.7 ± 0.2

6.

Washability

Easily and readily washable

7.

Solubility

Soluble in water

8.

Skin and eye irritation

No harmful effects on skin and eyes

9.

% Solid content

19.5±0.3

10.

Foaming capacity

Good foaming capacity

11.

Viscosity

2614 ±52 cp

12

Visual Stability

No change

 

Figure 2: Optimized (F4) Polyherbal Antidandruff Shampoo

 

CONCLUSION:

The main purpose behind this investigation was to develop poly herbal anti-dandruff shampoo using extracts of liquorices and guava leaf was formulated based upon traditional knowledge and emphasis was to formulate a stable and functionally effective anti-dandruff shampoo by excluding all types of synthetic additives. As seen from the results, it is possible a natural herbal shampoo by using liquorices and guava leaf which has antimicrobial and antifungal activity that is better approach with respect to various shampoos having synthetic chemicals as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that the formulation F4 of anti-dandruff herbal shampoo contains all good characters of an ideal shampoo and it was found to be harmless, more effective, ease of manufacturing and economical compared to synthetic antidandruff shampoo.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

This research work was kindly supported by the Faculty of Pharmacy in Indore Institute of Pharmacy. The author would like to Thanks Dr. Pankaj Dixit, Dr. Pritesh Paliwal, Nayany Sharma and all faculty members for sharing his valuable ideas and suggestions with me. Without his supports and positive critics it would have not been possible to do my project work successfully. I also thanks to all classmates for their support and encouragement during my stay over here.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Potluri Anusha, G. Harish, “Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-dandruff shampoo” Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology. 2013; 1(6); 835- 839.

2.      Wani Snehal1 et al. Pharmacophore: “Preparation and Evaluation of Antidandruff Polyherbal Powder Shampoo” An International Research Journal. 2014; 5 (1); 77-84.

3.      Gholve Sachin et al. “Formulation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Antidandruff Powder Shampoo”. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research; 2015; 4(10); 1714-1731.

4.      Shreya Kothari et al. “Polyherbal Anti-dandruff Shampoo: Basic Concept, Benefits, and Challenges” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2018; 12 (3); 849-858.

5.      Biswas Bipul, Rogers Kimberly et al. “Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria” International Journal of Microbiology. 2013; 1-7.

6.      Sumra Naseer et al. “The phytochemistry and medicinal value of Psidium guajava (guava)”. Clinical Phytoscience. 2018; 4(32); 1-8.

7.      Saraf Swarnlata et al. “Formulation and evaluation of herbal shampoo containing extract of Allium sativum” Research Journal Topical and Cosmetic Science. 2011; 2(1); 18-20.

8.      Upadhyay Sukritin et al. “Hair growth promotant of petroleum ether root extract of Glycerriza Glabra” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 11(5); 753-758.

9.      Kaur R, Kaur, Dhinds AS. “Glycyrrhiza glabra: a phytopharmacological review” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research. 2013; 4(7); 2470-2477.

10.   Reddy V. Sarovar, et al. “Formulation and evaluation of anti dandruff Shampoo” Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2016; 10(11); 700- 720.

11.   Dash k. Gouri et al. “Formulation and evaluation of herbal shampoo” Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 4(09); 2860-2865.

12.   Sakthivel M. Kunnathur et al. “Formulation and Assessment of Effective Poly-Herbal powder shampoo in Comparison with Marketed shampoo” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020; 1(0); 1370-1376.

13.   M. Revansiddappa, R Sharadha et al. “Formulation and evaluation of herbal Anti-dandruff shampoo” Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018; 7(4): 764-767.

14.   Lodha Gaurav “Formulation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Shampoo to Promote Hair Growth and Provide Antidandruff Action” Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2019; 9(4-A); 296-300.

15.   Vijaya lakshmi A, Sangeetha S et al. “Formulation and evaluation of herbal shampoo”. Asian Journal Pharmaceutics Clinical Research. 2018; 11(4); 121-124.

16.   Arora Rimjhim “Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo by Extract of Some Plants” The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Journal. 2019; 6(4); 74-80.

17.   Pal S. Rashmi “Preparation and Assessment of Poly-Herbal Anti-Dandruff Formulation” The Open Dermatology Journal. 2020; 14; 22-27.

18.   Sakthivel M. Kunnathur et al. “Formulation and Assessment of Effective Poly-Herbal powder shampoo in Comparison with Marketed shampoo” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020; 1; 1370-1376.

 

 

 

Received on 08.04.2021            Modified on 15.05.2021           

Accepted on 02.06.2021      ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 11(3):220-224.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5713.2021.00036