Nanotechnology: Overview and its application
Amit Nikam*, Anuja Patil, Chandrakant Magdum
Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Dist. Sangli, Maharashtra, India - 415404.
The study of different microscopic or tiny shaped and sized particles is what nanotechnology is all about. These nano-structured compounds have a wide range of strong actions in a variety of disciplines. These are readily carried due to their small size and form. Because of its small size, it may be used in a variety of ways. Nanotechnology improves a variety of businesses, including the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry, environmental protection, and a variety of others. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of nanotechnology and its applications in different industries and areas.
The study of very tiny structures is known as nanotechnology. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology is the process of forming and developing tiny structures such as atoms, molecules, or compounds with sizes ranging from 0.1 to 100 nm into structures that may be further developed into specific devices with desired traits and qualities1. Nanotechnology in pharmaceutics aids in the development of more sophisticated drug delivery methods, making it an essential and potent tool as a supplement to traditional dosage forms. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology is a specialist discipline that will alter the pharmaceutical industry's fate in the not-too-distant future. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology aids in the battle against a variety of diseases by identifying disease-associated antigens as well as the bacteria and viruses that cause the diseases2-5.
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology has been critical in overcoming numerous limitations of traditional dosage forms like as pills and capsules. Traditional forms have disadvantages such as limited bioavailability, poor patient compliance, and injury to healthy cells, among others, which were addressed by pharmaceutical nanotechnology6-10.
The challenge of satisfying the world's energy needs is made more difficult by the rising desire to safeguard the environment. Many scientists are working on developing clean, inexpensive, and renewable energy sources, as well as strategies to minimise energy use and reduce environmental toxicity.
Nanotechnology-enhanced prototype solar panels convert sunlight to energy more efficiently than traditional designs, implying that solar power will become more affordable in the future. Nanostructured solar cells are already cheaper to produce and instal than discrete panels because they may be manufactured using print-like manufacturing methods and on flexible rolls rather than separate panels. Through improved catalysis, nanotechnology is increasing the efficiency of fuel generation from normal and low-grade raw petroleum resources, as well as fuel consumption efficiency in cars and power plants through higher-efficiency combustion and reduced friction. The goal of nano-bioengineering enzymes is to convert cellulose into ethanol for fuel from wood chips, maize stalks (rather than simply the kernels, as is the case now), and unfertilized perennial grasses.
Researchers are creating thin-film solar panels that can be placed onto computer cases and flexible piezoelectric nanowires woven into clothes to create useable energy on-the-go from light, friction, and/or body heat to power mobile electronic devices. The quantity and types of energy efficiency products are rising. They include, in addition to those mentioned above, more energy-efficient lighting systems, lighter and stronger vehicle chassis materials for the transportation industry, lower energy consumption in modern electronics, and low-friction Nano-engineered materials.
Lubricants for all types of higher-efficiency machine gears, pumps, and fans; light-responsive smart glass coatings to support alternate heating/cooling systems; and high-intensity, fast-charging lights for emergency teams There are many ecofriendly applications for nanotechnology, such as materials that provide clean water from polluted water sources in both large-scale and portable applications, and ones that detect and clean up environmental contaminants11, in addition to lighter cars and machinery that require less fuel and alternative fuel and energy sources.
Applications of nanotechnology11:
I. Applications in pharmaceutical industry:
a) Drug delivery systems:
Traditional drug delivery systems have a number of drawbacks, including a lack of specificity, a faster rate of drug metabolism, cytotoxicity, a high dose requirement, and poor patient compliance, among others. These drawbacks can be overcome by drug delivery systems formulated using pharmaceutical nanotechnology principles.
Gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction, cellular metabolism, and intracellular and intercellular transport in live creatures are all studied using molecular imaging.
c) Drug discovery:
Pharmaceutical nanotechnology is essential in drug research and development since it aids in enhancing properties such as solubility, bioavailability, and other features of powerful medicines and excipients.
II. Applications in sensor and medicine:
Molecular imaging for early detection uses sensitive biosensors made of nanoscale components (e.g., Nanocantilevers, Nanowires, and Nano-channels) that can recognise genetic and molecular processes and report them, allowing for the identification of uncommon molecular signals linked to cancer. Multifunctional therapies, in which a nanoparticle serves as a platform for precise targeting of cancer cells and administration of a powerful therapy while reducing the danger to healthy tissues. Nanoscale probes to detect the motions of cells and individual molecules as they move around in their surroundings, as well as microfluidic chip-based Nano laboratories capable of monitoring and controlling individual cells. Medical and health applications, nanobio systems Nanotechnology has the potential to transform a wide range of medical and surgical treatments, making them more customised, portable, less expensive, safer, and easier to deliver.
III. Applications in environmental protection:
Highly hazardous chemical substances have been produced and released into the environment in recent decades in order to be utilised directly or indirectly over time. Pesticides, fuels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls are some of these components (PCBs). In comparison to organic molecules easily destroyed by introduction into the environment, certain mixed chemical compounds have a high resistance to biodegradation by local flora. As a result, one of the most severe concerns in the modern world has been hazardous chemical compounds. Contaminated soil and groundwater management is a serious environmental problem. The presence of high levels of a variety of pollutants in soils, sediments, and surface- and ground waters has an impact on the health of millions of people throughout the world. Current clean-up technology is unable to meet all of today's clean-up demands in a meaningful and cost-effective manner. Nanotechnology is one of the most important scientific trends, and it is often regarded as one of the most crucial technologies of the twenty-first century. Nanotechnology has the potential to be a significant weapon in the fight against pollution. According to several research, integrating nanoparticles with traditional treatment methods might improve the effectiveness of pollutants removal, particularly organic compounds. According to Zhang's findings, nanoscale iron particles are extremely effective at transforming and detoxifying a wide range of typical environmental pollutants, including chlorinated organic solvents, organochlorine pesticides, and PCBs. Nanoparticles react with pollutants in soil and water over long periods of time, and fast in situ responses have been seen, with TCE reductions of up to 99 percent recorded within a few days after nanoparticle injection. Engineered nanoparticles like TiO2 and ZnO, carbon nanotubes, metallic nanoparticles (e.g., iron, nickel), magnetic nanoparticles, and amphiphilic polyurethane nanoparticles have all been shown to be useful for remediation and treatment of contaminated water, soil, and air by a number of researchers. The four aspects of nanotechnology's use in environmental science are cleanup, protection, maintenance, and improvement.
IV. Applications in food industry:
Nanotechnology has been dubbed the "new industrial revolution," and both industrialised and developing countries are investing in it to gain a competitive advantage. Currently, the United States leads with a four-year, 3.7-billion-dollar expenditure in its National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). The United States is followed by Japan and the European Union, both of which have made significant financial commitments (750 million and 1.2 billion, including individual country contributions, respectively, per year). Others, such as India, South Korea, Iran, and Thailand, are catching up by focusing on applications that are particular to their nations' economic development and requirements. Integration of nutraceuticals, gelation and viscositying agents, nutrient propagation, mineral and vitamin fortification, and taste nanoencapsulation are some of the food processing techniques that use nanoparticles. As a result, systems with nanometer-scale physical structures might have an impact on everything from food safety to chemical synthesis. Nanotechnology has the potential to improve the quality and safety of food. Many research are evaluating Nano sensors' capacity to enhance disease detection in food systems. Nanofoods are foodstuffs that have been grown, processed, or packaged using nanotechnology, as well as materials created using nanotechnology. In this study, we address current nanotechnology research in food technology and agriculture, such as processing, packaging, nano-additives, cleaning, and contamination detection sensors, as well as prospective advances in the growing subject of agri-food nanotechnology.
V. Applications in future transportation:
Steel, concrete, asphalt, and other cementation materials, as well as their recycling forms, can be nano-engineered to improve the performance, resilience, and lifespan of roadway and transportation infrastructure components while lowering costs. New systems may combine novel characteristics, such as the capacity to create or transfer energy, into existing infrastructure materials. Continuous structural monitoring of the status and performance of bridges, tunnels, railways, parking structures, and pavements throughout time may be possible with nanoscale sensors and devices. Nanoscale sensors and gadgets might potentially aid in the development of a better transportation infrastructure that can interact with vehicle-based systems to assist drivers in maintaining lane position.
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Received on 06.07.2021 Modified on 28.07.2021
Accepted on 12.08.2021 ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved