An updated review on current situation of Corona virus disease

 

Sunayana Mali1*, Audumbar Mali2, Manojkumar Patil2, Ritesh Bathe2, Dipak Bathe3

1Department of Quality Assurance, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy,

Methwade, Sangola - 413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy,

Methwade, Sangola - 413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.

3Internal Medicine SAIL Hospital, Durgapur - 713216, West Bengal, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sunayanamali01@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

COVID-19 is currently regarded as a lethal disease. COVID-19 has exaggerated over 2.5 million citizen’s universal, consequential into more than 170,000 confirmed cases deaths Very recently a novel corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified because of causal cause of an outbreak of viral pneumonia centered around Wuhan, Hubei, China in Dec 2019, now called as COVID-19. The corona disease infection 2019 (Covid-19) (2019-nCoV) pandemic is an international public health emergency with major social and economic disruptions and devastating health consequences. COVID-19 is also known as a pandemic. COVID-19 has infected over 2.5 million people around the world, resulting in over 170,000 deaths. The rapid development of vaccines is imperative. Corona viruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. It triggers breathing zones that can vary from moderate to fatal in humans and birds more than a few issues to ordinary frosty (so as to can also be affected via different pathogens, mostly rhinoviruses) are mild, while more deadly strains be able to reason SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 in humans. Thousands of illnesses and deaths have occurred as a result of the disease. In fact, none exact cure remains available for the disorder yet this demands that even the condition should not expand. Notable Isolation of sick people, adequate ventilation, hand washing, and the utilization of PPE Kit are also preventive measures. As a result, this paper covers all aspects of COVID-19, including epidemiology, transmission, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

 

KEYWORDS: Covid-19, SARS, pandemic, MERS, corona virus, viral pneumonia.

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

 

Fig. 1: 3-d SARS-CoV-2 virion design and high - resolution camera or genome conceptual design.

Image part adapted since CDC the public fitness picture records (ID 23312: Alissa Eckert and Dan Higgins): Corona is part of the Corona viridae family, Nidovirales order. The name of the genus “Corona” means crown, as the virus appears with crown like projections on its surface. In the late 1960s, it was first isolated from patients suffering from common cold, named as B814 and visualized under a microscope. The subgroups of corona virus family include alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), and delta (δ).1 Corona virus 2 causes serious respiratory infection (SARS-CoV-2) or 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) is quickly expanding from its starting point roots in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, to the rest of the world.2 Over the past 2 decades, corona viruses (CoVs) have been associated with significant disease outbreaks in East Asia and the Middle East. In 2002 and 2012, the extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) first appeared.

 

A novel corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, has recently emerged in late 2019, causing corona disease infection 2019 (COVID-19), posing a global health threat and causing an ongoing pandemic in several countries and territories.3 The current corona virus disease 2019 (COVI D-19) outbreak is a worldwide emergency, as its rapid spread and high mortality rate has caused severe disruptions.4 The key reservoirs of the virus are bats, palm civets, livestock, and animals. In December 2019, there occurred a corona disease (corona virus disease 2019 [COVID19]) outbreak in Wuhan, China. This outbreak was thought to have originated from the Hunan seafood market at Wuhan, in China.1

 

A large number of to prevent the virus from spreading further, countries have adopted social distancing and lockdown measures. We will study our existing knowledge of COVID-19 and suggest the underlying mechanism to clarify the symptomatology's heterogeneity, with a special emphasis on the differences between children and adults.8   

 

1.1 History:

In the 1960s, viruses are revealed in the UK and in the US by two separate methods. In 1961, E.C. Kendall, Malcolm Bynoe, and David Tyrrell of the British Medical Research Council's Common Cold Unit obtained a rare common cold virus known as B814. By the standard techniques virus could not be full-fledged, that had previously been effective viruses.5

 

1.2 Classification:5,10

Corona viruses form the ortho corona virinae subfamily which is one of two sub-families in the family; order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria. They are divided into the four genera: Alpha corona virus, Beta corona virus, Gamma corona virus and Delta corona virus. Alpha corona viruses and beta corona viruses infect mammals, while gamma corona viruses and delta corona viruses primarily infect birds.

 

1.2.1 Type: Alpha corona virus:

type species: Alpha corona virus Species: Alpha corona virus 1 (TGEV, Feline corona virus, Canine corona virus), Human corona Human corona virus NL63, virus 229E Miniopterus bat corona virus 1, Miniopterus bat corona virus HKU8, Porcine outbreak diarrhoea virus, Miniopterus bat corona virus HKU8, Miniopterus bat corona virus HKU8, Miniopterus bat corona virus HKU8, Scotophilus bat corona virus HKU2, Rhinolophus bat corona virus 512.

 

1.2.2 Type Beta corona virus:

Type species: Murine corona batcorona virus HKU4

 

1.2.3 Type Gamma corona virus:

7 type species: Avian corona virus (IBV) Species: Avian corona virus, Beluga whale corona virus SW1.

 

1.2.4 Type Delta corona virus:

Type species: Bulbul corona virus HKU11 Species: Bulbul corona virus HKU11, Porcine corona virus HKU15.

 

1.3 Origin and Spread:

Adults in Wuhan, and a major transportation hub in China, began presenting to local hospitals in December 2019 with serious pneumonia of unknown origin. The surveillance system (implemented following the SARS outbreak) was enabled, and patients. Air samples have been submitted to reference laboratories for etiologic investigations. China told the WHO of the outbreak on December 31st, and on the January first Huanan sea food market was closed. The virus was classified as a corona virus on January 7th, with >95% homology to the bat corona virus and >70% similarity to the SARS CoV. Environmental samples were also collected from the Huanan sea food market experienced helpful, suggestive of the virus originate since present.2 While genetic evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 is a natural virus that most likely began in animals, no date has been established and where the virus first entered humans. As some of the first cases identified in Wuhan had no epidemiological link to seafood market, it has been suggested that the economy might not be working properly the initial source of human infection with SARS- CoV-2.6-8

 

However, in March 2020 branch of Health and Human Services stated a public health emergency due to Covid-19 vaccine injuries were expelled from the VICP. After this the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act impelled, which mandates that anyone injured by vaccinations used as in an emergence announced as prevention strategies must file a claim with the (CICP). Compared to the VICP, the CICP is much less generous and available. It compensates patients only for the most serious injuries, imposes a higher presumption of proof than the VICP, and has a one-year statute of limitations following the date of vaccination.9-11

 

On January 11th, 2020, the first fatal case was identified. The outbreak was fueled by the huge migration of Chinese during the New Year of Chinese. Cases from other Chinese provinces, when people returned from Wuhan, they saw people from other countries (Thailand, Japan, and South Korea in fast succession). Transmission to healthcare staff caring for patients was discovered on January 20, 2020. Wuhan’s 11 million residents had been put under lockdown by the 23rd of January, with entry and exit restrictions in place. Other cities in Hubei province were soon added to the curfew. COVID-19 cases have been discovered in people who have never visited China, indicating that local human-to-human transmission is taking place in these countries.2

 

Fig. 2: Summary of the natural reservoir, intermediate host and target in major corona viruses

 

1.4 Pathogenesis:

While SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis is not well defined; it is still possible to derive from what we know of other beta-coronal virus (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively) knowledge about viral replication and pathogenesis due to their similarity to SARS-CoV-2.8 In most of the epithelial airway cells, Corona viruses are highly accurate and reified as we can deduce SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis by in vivo and in vitro tests. Because of the damage to the host cell, there is a rise in nasal secretion as well as local edema, which further promotes the production of inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, these reactions can cause sneezing, trouble breathing due to airway obstruction, and an increase in mucosal temperature. When these viruses are released, they primarily affect the inferior respiratory area, with clinical signs and symptoms.9 In humans, SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from mild symptoms to extreme respiratory failure. SARS-CoV-2 begins replicating and migrating downs the airways after binding to Respiratory tract epithelial cells. The rapid replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the lungs could set off a powerful immune response. Severe respiratory syndrome and respiratory failure are the most common causes of death in COVID-19 patients, and cytokine storm syndrome is the most common cause of death. Patients over 60 years of age and those with severe pre-existing conditions are further liable to expand severe gasping distress disorder and die.2

 

Fever, dry cough, weakness, and, in serious cases, dyspnea are typical symptoms COVID-19). Many infections are asymptomatic, particularly in children and young adults, while older people and/or people with co-morbidities are further probable to increase serious sickness, respiratory failure, and death. The evolution time is 5 days, serious disease appears 8 days after the onset of symptoms, and serious sickness and 16 days after the onset of symptoms death will be appears.

 

1.5 Histopathology:

COVID-19 patient’s histopathological changes are also seen in the lungs. In the severe COVID-19, histopathology revealed bilateral diffused alveolar injury, hyaline membrane formation, pneumocyte desquamation, and fibrin deposits. In certain cases, exudative inflammation was also observed. SARS-CoV-2 antigen was found in the upper airway, bronchiolar epithelium, and sub mucosa in immunohistochemistry assays mucosal gland epithelium, as well as in alveolar macrophages, and hyaline membranes in type I and type II pneumocytes lungs. Most nonhuman primate animal models exhibit clinical characteristics that are close to those seen in COVID-19 patients, such as virus shedding, virus replication, and SARS-CoV-2 host responses infection.12

                                                                                                                                                                    

1.6 Breast Feeding and Infant Care:13,14,9

The information currently available is insufficient to determine whether COVID-19 can be transmitted by breast milk. The presence of COVID-19 in breast milk samples from six patients was found to be negative. The CDC advises that in the event of a confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection, the mother should decide whether or not to initiate or continue breastfeeding in consultation with her family and healthcare providers. Breast milk is used to spread the virus. The presence of COVID-19 in breast milk samples from six patients was found to be negative. The CDC advises that in the event of a confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection, the mother should decide whether or not to initiate or continue breastfeeding in consultation with her family and healthcare providers. The mother must take special care to avoid spreading the disease to her baby by respiratory droplets when breastfeeding. This includes wearing a facemask and practicing hand hygiene before feeding the baby.                              

 

1.7 Children and Elderly Population:9

COVID-19 in children accounted for 1-5 percent of reported cases, according to available data, and this demographic does not appear to be at higher risk for the disease than adults. The symptoms of COVID-19 do not vary between adults and adolescents. According to the available data, children with COVID-19 have milder symptoms than adults and have a lower mortality rate. Older people over the age of 65, on the other hand, are at a greater risk of contracting a major illness. In the United States, between the ages of 65 and 84, approximately 31-59 percent of those with confirmed COVID-19 needed hospitalization, 11-31 percent required admission to the intensive care unit, and 4-11 percent died.

 

1.8 Signs and Symptoms:

According to research, symptoms may differ due to different samples, patient analysis periods, and data subjectivity. This study, on the other hand, allowed for a thorough examination of the key signs and symptoms. Fever, cough, myalgia, nausea, sputum development, and dyspnea were the most common symptoms at the start of the illness. Some of the patients had pneumonia on radiographs, with bilateral diffuse airspace opacities. Hemoptysis, stomach pain, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting were among the less common symptoms that required supplemental oxygen. Just about 5-10% of patients had a sore throat or nasal congestion. Headache, dizziness, impaired consciousness ataxia; acute cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, hypogeusia, and hyposmia were among the neurological signs and symptoms reported. Organ failure and death are possible outcomes in serious cases.7

                                                                                                                                                

1.9 Diagnosis:

Patients who satisfy clinical case definition and are epidemiologically linked to a history of travel from the city of Wuhan in the last 14 days, or have come in contact with a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR confirmed case or with a patient who is under investigation for SARS-COV-2 within the same period, are considered to be suffering from COVID-1950. Persons with epidemiological risk exposure should strictly adhere to standard precautions and control of contact-based transmission now that asymptomatic transmission of the virus has been identified. Nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs obtained with Dacron swabs, expectorated sputum, BAL fluid, end tracheal aspirate, and tissue are all preferred clinical samples for establishing laboratory evidence of a reported event. During both the acute and convalescent phases of the disease, the clinical sample should be collected in a sterile container of regular saline to cover the sample; serum samples should be collected in pairs in red cap vials (plain vials) with clot activators. Two samples collected from anatomically distinct sites or two samples collected from the same site on two separate days of illness are positive in two different assays or on repeat PCR58 in a laboratory-confirmed case of COVID-19. Antibodies are detected in convalescent phase serum after a negative test in acute phase serum sample or a four-fold increase in antibody titres between the acute and convalescent phases, indicating seroconversion of the disease. ELISA or an indirect fluorescent antibody test may be used to validate seroconversion (IFA).15

 

2. PREVENTION AND TREATMENT:

2.1. Quarantine:

“The International Health Regulations (IHR) are an international legal instrument that binds 194 countries around the world, including all WHO Member States,” according to WHO. Their mission is to assist the international community in preventing and reacting to acute public health threats that have the potential to cross borders and pose a danger to people all over the world. The IHR defines “the rights and obligations of countries to report public health events and establish a number of procedures that WHO must follow in its work to uphold global public health security Given the rise in cases of COVID-19 in China, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India has provided travel advisories from time to time, in accordance with the principles outlined in IHR. “Indian travelers are hereby advised to refrain from travelling to China,” the travel advisory notes. For any foreign national travelling from China, existing visas (including those already issued) are no longer valid. Travelers to China will now be quarantined upon their return.” The impact of such travel bans in the medium and long term remains to be seen, but modeling studies indicate that in the short term, they are unlikely to have a substantial impact on global SARS-CoV-2 transmission unless they are introduced in tandem with a more than 50% reduction in local transmission 64. Such bans may only provide a symbolic shield unless the ongoing outbreak is staunched. Ethical concerns of imposing such travel bans have also been questioned.

 

On January 23, 2020, the Government of the Peoples Republic of China imposed a lockdown on Wuhan to quarantine and prevents the increase of the infection. This was a major public-health initiative. Although the advantages of such a move have yet to be determined, the measure's long-term negative consequences should not be overlooked. Such drastic interventions can cause social, psychological, and economic stressors in the population, resulting in long-term negative health outcomes. Community and civil-society-led self-quarantine and self-monitoring, rather than authoritarian top-down quarantine approaches directed by authorities, may emerge as more durable and implementable strategies in a long-term pandemic like COVID-19. Supportive and symptomatic care is the mainstay of treatment. To avoid transmission to other contacts, patients, and healthcare staff, the first step is to ensure sufficient isolation (discussed later). Mild illnesses should be treated at home with education on warning signs. Maintaining hydration and nutrition, as well as managing fever and cough, are common concepts.15

 

3. HOSPITAL CARE X INTENSIVE CARE UNIT:

They gathered data on clinical signs and outcomes for 1099 patients in a Chinese sample. In 67 patients (6.1%), a primary outcome case occurred, with 5.0 percent being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 2.3 percent requiring intrusive artificial breathing, and 1.4 percent dying. Another retrospective research in China with 158 patients showed that the average time from onset of illness to hospital admission varied between living and deceased cases, with the former reported to be 3.3 days (95 percent CI:2.7,4.0) and the latter at 6.5 days (95 percent CI:5.2,8.0). The average time from admission to death was 8.8 days (95 percent CI: 7.2, 10.8).7

 

4. IMPACT OF PANDAMIC CORONA-19:

4.1 Conclusions and future research directions:

In this post, we have provided a few initial thoughts on how CSR, consumer ethics and marketing philosophy are affected by the ongoing Covid-19 disease. The pandemic offers companies great opportunities to aggressively participate in numerous CSR initiatives during the crisis and could catalyze a new period of long-term CSR growth. We hope so any changes in this situation are highly likely to change the ways marketing has worked in the past and to fulfill the current reality.

 

4.2 The Effect of COVID-19 on Employment:19

Social distance steps and residency orders introduced since the COVID-19 crisis in many US countries have had an immense effect on wages, triggering sharp unemployment growth, and shortened or temporary hours for other workers.

 

5. THE EFFECT OF COVID-19 ON CHILD CARE NEEDS:

The COVID 19 crisis has resulted in a large number of childcare centres and schools closing, resulting in children living at home and having to be looked after and educated (where they can). This is a different aspect of the crisis. It presents special challenges for single parents. Separation of child care for parents who bring their children together can be measured by how supportive a parent will be when caring for their children from home.

 

It will likely also depend on the current division of childcare within each family. In this section we characterize the family arrangements and work flexibility of parents in US households and present separation of labor on childcare among married couples.

 

6. THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON MEDICAL EDUCATION:20

Initially, before the COVID-19 had become widespread in the U.S., many students had not thought much about how it was going to affect them. The health risks and mortality are now dire, and medical education is being revised in response to this global challenge. For a long time, we will not realize the full effect of COVID-19 on medical education. As a result, it would be critical to document and research the full scope of the improvements in medical education that have been implemented in response to this global emergency in order to better understand how we will rebound from this pandemic. The rapid cancellation of in-person medical courses, with most being replaced by recorded seminars or live-streams, has been one of the most immediate improvements adopted.

 

During their didactic years, medical students across the country have a common habit of relying on outside resources for Phase preparations and watching school lectures after they have already been delivered at 2x pace. Thus, many medical students may see no difference in their curriculum during their teaching times by cancelling courses, but the lack of cooperation is potentially detrimental to education and worth researching. Furthermore, several professors have emphasized the indisputable importance of attending class in person, praising the real-time reviews and back-and-forth that occur in class, which is difficult to recreate in online forums. Now that lectures have transferred online, the faculty speaks from both sides. The standards to imitate this online collaborative debate need to be examined so that our students can be prepared online for clinical studies and beyond. The small community sessions at an online forum are one way to illustrate the new interactive climate. The annulment of classes will challenge students after limitations are removed to re-engage themselves within the community spirit of the medical school. Interactive research sessions, including case-based small group learning and team-based preparation, will proceed through webinars and television conferences during the COVID-19 pandemic, and even offer insight into the future of healthcare. While negligible in the sense of the major catastrophe, it poses the problem of how to prepare for and respond to these changes as a trainee. As a student, you must learn to balance the status of a student planning a career with the benefit of becoming a potential health professional who can contribute valuably to the health crisis at this point. The concern is how students can learn and transition into the medical profession when many med students will lack the important opportunities of lectures, clinical inversions even interactive experiences - expectations that have inspired past generations to become potential doctors.

 

It's important to note what conference presentations and extracurricular activities mean for each student while thinking about why they've become so important in residency applications. If you understand that conference presentations and extracurricular activities are so important to applicants for residency, it is important to note what they really mean for each student.16-18

 

In light of these recent developments, we must understand how medical students should improve and show skills such as experience, commitment, and teamwork, as well as better plan for the professions ahead of them. Because of the lack of resources offered by personal conferences and seminars, the market for online conferences is on the increase. Recommendations for the creation and organization of these activities have been followed. 12 The youngest generations of medicine are probably better prepared in innovative, multimedia worlds to integrate the technologies and webinars of healthcare delivery.

 

6.1. Measuring response:19-21

Due to the limited treatment options available, the ability to measure a response to treatment is challenging. When patients are tested for initial infection, a positive result is based on nucleic acid detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CRP is slightly elevated and albumin is minimal in patients with worsening conditions, according to studies. Although there are no specific recommendations for how to assess a patient's reaction to supportive care, Casella et al. recommend that laboratory testing of samples from patients should show viral clearance prior to discharge from observation in the form of two negative respiratory tract specimens collected at least 24 hours apart.

 

6.2 The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape:22

On January 11, 2020, the genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2, the corona virus that causes COVID-19, was released, sparking a surge in global research and development efforts to develop a vaccine. The humanitarian and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic contributes to an assessment of next-generation platforms on vaccine technology through new research paradigms and on 16 March 2020, the first COVID-19 candidate reached human clinical studies without precedent.

 

6.3 COVID-19 vaccine R&D landscape:

As of 8 April 2020, the R&D environment of the global vaccine COVID-19 comprises 115 candidates, 78 of who are involved and 37 unconfirmed (development status cannot be determined from publicly available or proprietary information sources). Of the 78 active projects confirmed, 73 are currently exploratory and preclinical. Reentered candidates were the most updated to be enterprised in clinical development, including Moderna mRNA-1273; CanSino's Ad5-nCoV; Inovio's INO-4800; and LV-SMENP-DC; and Shenzhen geno-Immune Medical Institute's pathogen-specific aAPC.

 

6.4 Profile of vaccine developers:

Of the verified candidates for active vaccine, 56(72%) are produced by private/industrial entrepreneurs, with 22 other ventures (28%) led by research, public and other non-profit organizations while several major global vaccine developers (like Janssen, Sanofi, Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline) have taken up the production of COVID-19 vaccines, many of the leading development developers of large-scale manufacturing of vaccines are small and/or inexperienced.

 

6.5 Quantitative RT-PCR:17

Total nucleic acid extraction from the samples was performed using the QIA amp RNA Viral Kit (Qiagen), and qRT-PCR was performed using a commercial kit specific for 2019-nCoV detection (Geneo DXCo) approved by the China Food and Drug Administration. The act value of each RT-PCR assay is the amount of cycles needed for the fluorescent signal to reach the threshold for a positive test: a higher Ct value is associated with a lower viral load.

 

If the Ct value was 37.0 or less, the specimens were considered valid, and if the findings were undetermined, they were considered negative. Specimens with a Ct value greater than 37 were analyzed again. If the replicated findings were the same as the original result and were between 37 and 40, the specimen was found positive. The specimen was deemed negative if the repetitive Ct was undetectable. Both procedures involving clinical specimens and SARS-CoV-2 were carried out in a laboratory with a bio protection score of 3. On day 1, day 1, day 3, day 7, and day 12 after the transfusion, the Ct values of the 5 recipients were collected.

 

6.6 Elisa:

Micro titer plates (Sangon Biotech) were coated over night at4°C with 4 μg/mL recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD (receptor binding domain) proteins (50μL per well) expressed by our laboratory through 293- T cells. The plates were washed three times in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.1 percent vol/vol Tween-20 (PBST) before being blocked for two hours at 37°C with blocking solution (PBS containing 2 percent wt/vol nonfat dried milk). After that, the plates were cleaned with PBST. As an initial concentration, the serum samples were diluted 200-fold in PBS, and serial 3-fold dilutions of serum were applied to the wells and incubated at 37°C for at least 60 minutes. After 5 washes, 100 l of Sangon Biotech tetraethyl benzidine substrate was applied at room temperature in the dark. The reaction was halted after 15 minutes with a 2M H2SO4 solution (sulfuric acid). At 450 nm, the absorbance was assessed. Both samples were tested three times. End point dilution was used to assess the ELISA titers.

 

6.7 Serum Neutralization Assay:

In a 96-well plate, Vero cells (104) were seeded 24 hours before infection (Costar). The cells were washed twice on the day of infection. Patients' serum samples were incubated for 30 minutes at 56°C before being diluted 2-fold in cell culture medium (modified eagle medium). Aliquots of diluted serum samples (ranging from 2-fold to 2056-fold) were applied to 50 liters of cell culture medium containing 50 times the tissue culture infective dosage. (TCID50) of the Beta CoV/Shenzhen/ SZTH-003/2020 virus (isolated from this hospital, GISAID access number: EPI ISL 406594)15 in a 96-well plate in CO2 5 percent vol/vol for 2 hours. After a 5-day incubation period, the virus antibody mix was applied to cells in 96-well plates, and the plates were incubated at 37°C with microscopic analysis for cytopathic effect. The neutralizing antibody titer was calculated using the maximum dilution of serum that displayed SARS-CoV-2 inhibition activity. Negative control samples from healthy participants were used in the assays, which were done in triplicate.

 

After its first discovery in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the Corona virus disease 2019 has seen a dramatic rise in cases and deaths. There is little evidence about the effects of corona virus disease 2019 during pregnancy; however, information on illnesses associated with other highly pathogenic corona viruses (such as extreme acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome) can provide insight into the effects of corona virus disease 2019 during pregnancy. Travel from mainland China (especially Hubei Province) or close contact with infected individuals within 14 days of symptom onset are currently the primary epidemiologic risk factors for corona virus disease 2019. According to the results, the incubation period is w5 days (range, 2e14 days). The average age of admitted patients were 49e56 years, with a third to half of them suffering from a serious illness. Children have only been mentioned a few times. Hospitalized patients were more likely to be men (54e73 percent). Fever, asthma, myalgia, headache, and diarrhoea are all common symptoms. Abnormal chest radiographic screening, lymphopenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are examples of abnormal examination. In reality, the American College of Radiology (ACR) warns that the need for CT decontamination after scanning COVID-19 patients could cause radiological service disruptions, and advises that portable chest radiography be considered to reduce the risk of cross-infection (American College of Radiology). A positive CXR can also eliminate the need for a CT scan in cases with elevated clinical suspicion for COVID-19. Additionally, in areas around the world where accurate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) COVID research is limited, CXR usage for early disease detection could be important.23-24

 

6.8. Ground glass densities:

When compared to CT, CXR is less sensitive in detecting COVID-19 lung disease, with a confirmed baseline sensitivity of 69 percent. Lung consolidation and ground glass opacities are the most often recorded COVID-19 CXR and CT findings. Ground glass densities seen on CT will often have a correlate that is difficult to detect on CXR (Figs. 3, 4). On regular CXR, reticular opacities surrounding regions of ground glass attenuation are also more visible (Fig. 5). The diffuse nature of hazy pulmonary opacities on CXR will make detection difficult in some situations. (Fig.6).24

 

 

 

Fig. 3: On coronal image from contrast enhanced CT (right) performed the same day, portable CXR (left) with ambiguous hazy densities in the right upper lobe (white arrow) that correspond to ground glass opacities (black arrow).

 

 

Fig. 4: On coronal image from contrast-enhanced the contemporaneous chest CT, patchy peripheral left mid to lower lung opacities (black arrow) corresponding to ground glass opacities (white arrow) on CXR (left) (right).

 

 

Fig. 5: In a patient with COVID-19, CXR (left) with reticular and hazy left lower lobe opacities (black arrow). On the same day, a coronal CT revealed similar results (right).

 

 

Fig. 6: In a patient with COVID-19, CXR (left) shows slight ill-defined hazy opacities in the right (black arrows) lungs that are greater than the left. On a similar CT scan the same day, the findings became easier to appreciate (right).

 

7. SCALE UP:25,26

The opportunity to provide hundreds of millions to billions of vaccine doses necessitates the world's vaccine production capability. While new technology and factories can be built to support development, the requisite biomanufacturing facilities, including the fill/finish steps to provide vialed vaccine products for delivery, must be funded immediately. Cost, logistics infrastructure, cold chain standards, and achieving universal coverage are all possible bottlenecks in vaccine supply to individuals and populations. All of these problems necessitate global collaboration among health-care delivery and economics organizations. The production of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is a must if we are to return to any semblance of normalcy. To accomplish this, all capital from the public, corporate, and philanthropic sectors must work together in a strategic way. The ACTIV public-private collaboration and coordinated harmonized efficacy trials are two frameworks that can help us accomplish our goal. “Ensuring the environmental sanitation and disinfection practices are practiced regularly and correctly,” according to the WHO. Efficient and appropriate treatments include thoroughly washing environmental surfaces with water and detergent and adding widely used hospital-level disinfectants (such as sodium hypochlorite).”

 

8. CONCLUSIONS:

This new virus epidemic has posed a threat to China's economic, medical, and public health infrastructure, as well as that of other countries, especially its neighbors. Only time will say how the virus affects our lives in India. In addition, potential outbreaks of zoonotic viruses and bacteria are expected to occur. As a result, in addition to controlling this epidemic, attempts should be taken to implement comprehensive strategies to deter potential zoonotic outbreaks.

 

 

Fig. 7: A review of COVID-19 patients' health results. The survivors (n = 137) and non-survivors (n = 54) are represented by solid colors and cross-hatched patterns, respectively.

 

9. ACKNOLWDMENT:

Authors are highly thankful to Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola, Solapur, and Maharashtra, India for doing this review successfully.

 

10. REFERENCES:

1.      Vidya M. Mahalmani, Dhruv Mahendru, Ankita Semwal, Sukhmeet Kaur, Harpinder Kaur, Phulen Sarma, Ajay Prakash, Bikash Medhi. Covid19 Pandemic: A Review Based on Current Evidence. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2020; 52(2): 117-129.

2.      Tanu Singhal. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2020; 87(4): 281–286

3.      Kuldeep Dhama, Sharun Khan, Ruchi Tiwari, Shubhankar Sircar, Sudipta Bhat, Yashpal Singh Malik, Karam Pal Singh, Wanpen Chaicumpa, D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales. Coronavirus Disease 2019–COVID-19: Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2020; 33(4): 1-48

4.      Li Yang, Shasha Liu, Jinyan Liu, Zhixin Zhang, Xiaochun Wan, Bo Huang, Youhai Chen and Yi Zhang. COVID-19: immunopathogenesis and Immunotherapeutic: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy. 2020; 5(128): 1-8

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Received on 05.11.2021         Modified on 09.02.2022

Accepted on 11.03.2022   ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2022; 12(2):167-175.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5713.2022.00028