Author(s): Ishwar Singh, Jatin Sharma, Inder Kumar, Shivali Singla, Amit Chaudhary, Sunny Dhiman


DOI: 10.52711/2231-5713.2022.00041   

Address: Ishwar Singh, Jatin Sharma, Inder Kumar*, Shivali Singla, Amit Chaudhary, Sunny Dhiman
School of Pharmacy, Abhilashi University, Chail Chowk, Mandi, HP India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 12,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2022

Mucoadhesive formulations, which bind to the vaginal mucosa and play a significant role in drug release, are now being used for controlled release. The vagina is a significant area of the reproductive tract and helps as a potential route of drug administration. it is also of importance for systemic drug delivery, and uterine targeting. Currently, available dosage forms have several limitations, therefore novel concepts and dosage forms are needed. In this field, mucoadhesive polymers will play a major role. This review highlights the most important studies based on mucoadhesive polymer-systems like poly (acrylates), hyaluronic acid derivatives, pectin, chitosan, cellulose derivatives, tragacanth sulfated polysaccharides, carrageenan, Na-alginate, starch, poly (ethylene glycol), and gelatin.

Cite this article:
Ishwar Singh, Jatin Sharma, Inder Kumar, Shivali Singla, Amit Chaudhary, Sunny Dhiman. Potential of naturally occurring Mucoadhesive polymer in Vaginal infection. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.2022; 12(3):251-6 doi: 10.52711/2231-5713.2022.00041

Ishwar Singh, Jatin Sharma, Inder Kumar, Shivali Singla, Amit Chaudhary, Sunny Dhiman. Potential of naturally occurring Mucoadhesive polymer in Vaginal infection. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.2022; 12(3):251-6 doi: 10.52711/2231-5713.2022.00041   Available on:

1.    Chore MSA, Dighade SJ. A Review on Mucoadhesive Vaginal Drug Delivery System. Int J Reserach Pharm Chem. 2020;10(4):350–64.
2.    Boddupalli BM. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview. J Adv Pharm Tech Res. 2010;(October):2–8.
3.    Sharma M, Sheeba FR, Yadav RP, Patel AK, Kumar Y. Mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery system: An overview. Asian J Pharm Res Dev. 2021;9(2):57–64.
4.    Sudhakar Y, Kuotsu K, Bandyopadhyay AK. Buccal bioadhesive drug delivery—a promising option for orally less efficient drugs. J Control release. 2006;114(1):15–40.
5.    Sahin HT, Arslan MB. A study on physical and chemical properties of cellulose paper immersed in various solvent mixtures. Int J Mol Sci. 2008;9(1):78–88.
6.    Baumgartner S, Kristl J, Peppas NA. Network structure of cellulose ethers used in pharmaceutical applications during swelling and at equilibrium. Pharm Res. 2002;19(8):1084–90.
7.    Furst T, Piette M, Lechanteur A, Evrard B, Piel G. Mucoadhesive cellulosic derivative sponges as drug delivery system for vaginal application. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015;95:128–35.
8.    Yadav VK, Gupta AB, Kumar R, Yadav JS, Kumar B. Mucoadhesive polymers: means of improving the mucoadhesive properties of drug delivery system. J Chem Pharm Res. 2010;2(5):418–32.
9.    Mohnen D. Pectin structure and biosynthesis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11(3):266–77.
10.    Round AN, Rigby NM, MacDougall AJ, Morris VJ. A new view of pectin structure revealed by acid hydrolysis and atomic force microscopy. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345(4):487–97.
11.    Willats WGT, Knox JP, Mikkelsen JD. Pectin: new insights into an old polymer are starting to gel. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2006;17(3):97–104.
12.    Klemetsrud T, Jonassen H, Hiorth M, Kjøniksen A-L, Smistad G. Studies on pectin-coated liposomes and their interaction with mucin. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces. 2013;103:158–65.
13.    Zhu F. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;122:456–80.
14.    Wu AC, Li E, Gilbert RG. Exploring extraction/dissolution procedures for analysis of starch chain-length distributions. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;114:36–42.
15.    Tester RF, Karkalas J, Qi X. Starch—composition, fine structure and architecture. J Cereal Sci. 2004;39(2):151–65.
16.    Mehta S, Verstraelen H, Vandaele L, Mehuys E, Remon JP, Vervaet C. Vaginal distribution and retention of tablets comprising starch-based multiparticulates: Evaluation by colposcopy. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2013;39(12):1944–50.
17.    Poelvoorde N, Verstraelen H, Verhelst R, Saerens B, De Backer E, dos Santos Santiago GL, et al. In vivo evaluation of the vaginal distribution and retention of a multi-particulate pellet formulation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2009;73(2):280–4.
18.    Gacesa P. Alginates. Carbohydr Polym. 1988;8(3):161–82.
19.    Sutherland IW. Alginates. In: Biomaterials. Springer; 1991. p. 307–31.
20.    Poncelet D, Babak V, Dulieu C, Picot A. A physico-chemical approach to production of alginate beads by emulsification-internal ionotropic gelation. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp. 1999;155(2–3):171–6.
21.    Ching SH, Bansal N, Bhandari B. Alginate gel particles–A review of production techniques and physical properties. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(6):1133–52.
22.    Al Sagheer FA, Al-Sughayer MA, Muslim S, Elsabee MZ. Extraction and characterization of chitin and chitosan from marine sources in Arabian Gulf. Carbohydr Polym. 2009;77(2):410–9.
23.    Islam S, Bhuiyan MAR, Islam MN. Chitin and chitosan: structure, properties and applications in biomedical engineering. J Polym Environ. 2017;25(3):854–66.
24.    Pillai CKS, Paul W, Sharma CP. Chitin and chitosan polymers: Chemistry, solubility and fiber formation. Prog Polym Sci. 2009;34(7):641–78.
25.    Ravindra R, Krovvidi KR, Khan AA. Solubility parameter of chitin and chitosan. Carbohydr Polym. 1998;36(2–3):121–7.
26.    Riva R, Ragelle H, des Rieux A, Duhem N, Jérôme C, Préat V. Chitosan and chitosan derivatives in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Chitosan Biomater II. 2011;19–44.
27.    Osmałek T, Froelich A, Jadach B, Tatarek A, Gadziński P, Falana A, et al. Recent Advances in Polymer-Based Vaginal Drug Delivery Systems. Pharmaceutics. 2021;13(6):884.
28.    Baldrick P. The safety of chitosan as a pharmaceutical excipient. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;56(3):290–9.
29.    Zhang H, Tao Y, Guo J, Hu Y, Su Z. Hypolipidemic effects of chitosan nanoparticles in hyperlipidemia rats induced by high fat diet. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11(4):457–61.
30.    Lupo N, Fodor B, Muhammad I, Yaqoob M, Matuszczak B, Bernkop-Schnürch A. Entirely S-protected chitosan: A promising mucoadhesive excipient for metronidazole vaginal tablets. Acta Biomater. 2017;64:106–15.
31.    Garcıa-Ochoa F, Santos VE, Casas JA, Gómez E. Xanthan gum: production, recovery, and properties. Biotechnol Adv. 2000;18(7):549–79.
32.    Rosalam S, England R. Review of xanthan gum production from unmodified starches by Xanthomonas comprestris sp. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2006;39(2):197–207.
33.    Young S, Wong M, Tabata Y, Mikos AG. Gelatin as a delivery vehicle for the controlled release of bioactive molecules. J Control release. 2005;109(1–3):256–74.
34.    Yavuz ST, Sahiner UM, Sekerel BE, Tuncer A, Kalayci O, Sackesen C. Anaphylactic reactions to measles–mumps–rubella vaccine in three children with allergies to hen’s egg and cow’s milk. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100(8):e94–6.
35.    Singla AK, Chawla M. Chitosan: Some pharmaceutical and biological aspects‐an update. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53(8):1047–67.
36.    Ilium L. Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. Pharm Res. 1998;15(9):1326–31.
37.    Dodane V, Vilivalam VD. Pharmaceutical applications of chitosan. Pharm Sci Technolo Today. 1998;1(6):246–53.
38.    Robinson JR, Mlynek GM. Bioadhesive and phase-change polymers for ocular drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 1995;16(1):45–50.
39.    Nigalaye AG, Adusumilli P, Bolton S. Investigation of prolonged drug release from matrix formulations of chitosan. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1990;16(3):449–67.
40.    Lee JW, Park JH, Robinson JR. Bioadhesive‐based dosage forms: The next generation. J Pharm Sci. 2000;89(7):850–66.
41.    Lanchares JL, Hernandez ML. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis, changes in etiopathogenical patterns. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2000;71(Suppl. 1).
42.    Ferrer J. Vaginal candidosis: epidemiological and etiological factors. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2000;71:21–7.
43.    Bernkop-Schnürch A, Hornof M, Zoidl T. Thiolated polymers—thiomers: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of chitosan–2-iminothiolane conjugates. Int J Pharm. 2003;260(2):229–37.
44.    El-Kamel AH, Sokar MS, Naggar VF, Al-Gamal SS. Bioadhesive controlled release metronidazole vaginal tablets. ACTA Pharm. 2002;52(3):171–80.
45.    Ceschel GC, Maffei P, Borgia SL, Ronchi C, Rossi S. Development of a mucoadhesive dosage form for vaginal administration. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2001;27(6):541–7.
46.    Richardson JL, Armstrong TI. Vaginal delivery of calcitonin by hyaluronic acid formulations. Drugs Pharm Sci. 1999;98:563–99.
47.    Richardson JL, Ramires PA, Miglietta MR, Rochira M, Bacelle L, Callegaro L, et al. Novel vaginal delivery systems for calcitonin: I. Evaluation of HYAFF/calcitonin microspheres in rats. Int J Pharm. 1995;115(1):9–15.
48.    Bonucci E, Ballanti P, Ramires PA, Richardson JL, Benedetti LM. Prevention of ovariectomy osteopenia in rats after vaginal administration of Hyaff 11 microspheres containing salmon calcitonin. Calcif Tissue Int. 1995;56(4):274–9.
49.    Patel GM, Patel MM. Vagina: An ideal site for drug delivery. Res J Pharm Technol. 2009;2(3):426–32.
50.    Bombart F. Aqueous vaginal douche compositions. WO. 1992;9210998:A1.
51.    Baloğlu E, Özyazıcı M, Hızarcıoğlu SY, Karavana HA. An in vitro investigation for vaginal bioadhesive formulations: bioadhesive properties and swelling states of polymer mixtures. Farm. 2003;58(5):391–6.
52.    Graham NB, McNeill ME. Hydrogels for controlled drug delivery. Biomaterials. 1984;5(1):27–36.
53.    Embrey MP, Graham NB, McNeill ME, Hillier K. In vitro release characteristics and long term stability of poly (ethylene oxide) hydrogel vaginal pessaries containing prostaglandin E2. J Control release. 1986;3(1–4):39–45.
54.    Owen DH, Dunmire EN, Plenys AM, Katz DF. Factors influencing nonoxynol-9 permeation and bioactivity in cervical mucus. J Control release. 1999;60(1):23–34.
55.    Richardson JL, Illum L. VIII: the vaginal route of peptide and protein drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 1992;8(2–3):341–66.
56.    Richardson JL, Illum L, Thomas NW. Vaginal absorption of insulin in the rat: effect of penetration enhancers on insulin uptake and mucosal histology. Pharm Res. 1992;9(7):878–83.
57.    Digenis GA, Nosek D, Mohammadi F, Darwazeh NB, Anwar HS, Zavos PM. Novel vaginal controlled-delivery systems incorporating coprecipitates of nonoxynol-9. Pharm Dev Technol. 1999;4(3):421–30.
58.    Meignant C, Vieillard-Baron C, Verdier S. Synergistic pharmaceutical combination containing imidazole derivatives for locally treating vulvovaginitis and vaginosis. WO; 1999.
59.    Dunmire EN, Katz DF. Alteration of human sperm kinematics in cervical mucus due to nonoxynol-9. Contraception. 1997;55(4):209–17.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Abhishek K. Sah, Manmohan Singh Jangdey, Sanjay J. Daharwal

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Chinmaya Keshari Sahoo, K. Satyanarayana, D. Venkata Ramana, Kanhu Charan Panda

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2017.00034.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Phatak Atul A., Chaudhari Praveen D.

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vikranti W. Koli, Manohar D. Kengar, Amruta B. Kamble, Suraj B. Kumbhar, Rahul P. Jadhav

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2019.00022.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Dhadde Gurunath S., Mali Hanmant S., Raut Indrayani D., Nitalikar Manoj M., Bhutkar Mangesh A.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5713.2021.00025         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sunil Kumar, Anil Kumar, Vaibhav Gupta, Kuldeep Malodia, Pankaj Rakha

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Girishchandra R., Mandake, Shital S. Shinde, Vishal Y. Belaskar, Asha M. Jagtap, Ganesh B. Vambhurkar, Manoj M. Nitalikar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2018.00033.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Poonam R. Songire, Smita S. Aher, R. B. Saudagar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2015.00031.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vanitha Kondi, Ramesh Alluri

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Basavaraj, Someswara Rao B, S.V Kulkarni, Pramod Patil , Chetan Surpur

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Himansu Bhusan Samal, Itishree Jogamaya Das, Ch. Niranjan Patra, P. N. Murthy

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2015.00036.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Godbole Ajeet Madhukar, Patel Bhautik V, Somnache Sandesh Narayan, Prajapati Ashish R, Yadav Pradeep

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2017.00004.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S. Kumara Swamy, G. Arun, Bethi Srinivas, Agaiah Goud B

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2016.00014.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Babli Thakur, Vinay Pandit, Mahendra Singh Ashawat, Pravin Kumar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2016.00006.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Chinmaya Keshari Sahoo, Surepalli Ram Mohan Rao, Muvvala Sudhakar, D. Venkata Ramana, K.Satyanarayana

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5713.2018.00003.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (AJPTech.) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical sciences...... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/2231–5713 

Recent Articles