Author(s): Mahe Alam, K. Javed, MA Jafri


DOI: 10.52711/2231-5713.2023.00034   

Address: Mahe Alam1, K. Javed2, MA Jafri3
1Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058, India.
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi-110062, India.
3Department of Ilmul Advia (Pharmacology), Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Hamdard University,New Delhi-110062, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2023

Kundur (oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia serrata Roxb.) is an ingredient in certain Unani formulations used in kidney disorders. Cadmium is potentially a severe nephrotoxin, because cadmium has a biologic half life of more than 30 years. In the present study the effects of Kundur and its methanol soluble (MS) and methanol insoluble (MINS) fractions were investigated on Cadmium chloride induced nephrotoxicity in Albino rats. The animals of group I and II were administered with 1% CMC (1000mgl/kg, p.o.) and the animals of groups III, IV and V were administered with Kundur (1000mg/kg, p.o.), MS (650mg/kg, p.o.) and MINS (350mg/kg, p.o.) respectively for eight days. Animals in group II, III, IV and V were co-administered Cadmium chloride (3mg/kg/bodyweight) from the fourth day to the end of study (eight day). On the 9th day (after 24h s.c. ingestion) blood samples were withdrawal, blood samples centrifuged and serum was separated to measure the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Albino rats fed with Kundur and MI fraction showed a significant prevention in the rise of serum markers while MS failed to prevent the rise of these serum makers. These results suggest that Kundur (Boswellia serrata Roxb.) and MINS fraction may have potential to reduce the nephrotoxicity in Albino rats.

Cite this article:
Mahe Alam, K. Javed, MA Jafri. Effect of Oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Kundur) on Cadmium Chloride Induced Renal Toxicity in Albino rats. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2023; 13(3):189-193. doi: 10.52711/2231-5713.2023.00034

Mahe Alam, K. Javed, MA Jafri. Effect of Oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Kundur) on Cadmium Chloride Induced Renal Toxicity in Albino rats. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2023; 13(3):189-193. doi: 10.52711/2231-5713.2023.00034   Available on:

1.    Azam K. Akseer-e-Azam. Maktaba Munshi Nawal Kishore Lucknow, India. 1885; pp 23-25.
2.    Ghani MN. Khazainatul Advia. Maktaba Munshi Nawal Kishore Lucknow, India. 1917; Vol III pp371-374.
3.    Ibne Sina. Al-Qanoon Fit-Tibb. Nigar-e-Ashayat Main Chamber, Lahore, Pakistan. 1912; Vol II: p199. 
4.    Nigrami SMH.Unani Advia Murakkaba. Lucknow, India, Khalil Ahmad Mahmood Nagar. 1995; pp110-303.
5.    Lubhaya R. Delhi Ke Muntakhab Murakkabat, (Goswami Pharmacy, Gali Qasimjan, Delhi, India). 1979; p 80.
6.    Kriegistein CF, Anthoni C, Rijchen EJ, Laukotter M, Spiegel HU, et al. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, a constituent of a herbal medicine from Boswellia serrata resin, attenuates experimental ileitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2001; 16(2): 88-95.
7.    Pozharitskaya ON, Ivanova SA, Shikov AN & Makarov VG, Separation and quantification of terpenoids of Boswellia serrata Roxb. Extract by planar chromatography techniques (TLC and AMD). J Sep Sci. 2006; 29(14): 2245-2250.
8.    Sharma A, Mann AS, Gajbhiye V, & Kharya MD. Phytochemical Profile of Boswellia serrata: An overview. Pharmacogy Revi. 2007; 1(1): 1-8.
9.    Singh B, Kumar R, Bhandari S, Pathania S, Lal B. Volatile constituents of natural Boswellia serrata oleo-gum-resin and commercial samples. Flavour Fragr J. 2007; 22(2): 145-147.
10.    Shah SA, Rathod IS, Suhagia BN, Pandya SS & Parmar VK. A simple high performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of Boswellic acids from the market formulations containing Boswellia serrata extract. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008; 46(8): 735-738.
11.    Mahe Alam, Hakimuddin Khan, L Samiullah, KM Siddique. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Kundur (Boswellia serrata Roxb ex Colebr.)-A Unani drug Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science.  2012; (2) 3: 148-156.
12.    L. Samiullah and S. Shakir Jamil Mahe Alam, Hakimuddin Khan. Nephroprotective activities of herbal plants and their products-a review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. 2013; (5) 9: 32-49.
13.    Garg SC. Antifungal activity of some essential oils. Ind J Pharmacol. 1974; 36: 47-47.
14.    Kapil A, Moza N. Anti-complementary activity of boswellic acid an inhibitor of C3-convertase of the classical complement pathway. Int J Immunopharmaco. 1992; 14: 1139-1143.
15.    Dennis TJ, Kumar A, Srimannarayana G, Raghunathrao D. Juvenomimetic activity of the gumoleoresin of Boswellia serrata.  Fitoterapia. 1999; 70: 308-310.
16.    Singh G B, Singh B & Atal C K. Assessment of total boswellic acids for anti-inflammatory activity. Indian J Pharmacol. Abstr. 1984; 16(1): 115.
17.    Singh G B, Surjeet S, Bani S & Kaul A. Boswellic acids-a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs with a novel mode of action. International Seminar Traditional Medicine Calcutta, India. 1992; 81-82.
18.    Huang MT, Bacdmaev V, Ding V, Liu Y, Xie JG & Ho CT. Anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic activities of triterpenoid, beta-boswellic acid.  Biofactors (2000); 13: 225-230.
19.    Pungle P, Banavalikar M, Suthar A, Biyani M & Mengi S, Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb.  Ind J Exp Biol 2003; 41(12): 1460-1462.
20.    Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, Gupta S, Ludtke R, et al. Effect of Boswellis serrata gum resin in bronchial asthma.  Eur J Med Res. 1998; 3: 511-514.
21.    Sander O, Herborn G, Rau R. Resin extract of Boswellia serrata is useful supplement to established drug therapy of chronic polyarthritis, results of a double-blind pilot study.  J Rheumatol. 1998; 57: 11-16.
22.    Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, Gupta S, Ludtke R, et al. Effect of Boswellis serrata in chronic colitis. Planta Med. 2001; 67: 391-395.
23.    Gerhardt H, Seifert F, Buvari P, Vogelsang H, Repges R. Effect of Boswellis serrata in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterol. 2001; 39: 11-17.
24.    Hussein G, Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N, et al. Inhibitory effects of Sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C-virus (HCV) protease. Phytother Res. 2000; 14:  510-516.
25.    Conner, E. A., Fowler, B. A. Mechanisms of metal induced nephrotoxicity in toxicology of the kidney (II edition), Edited by Jerry B. Hook and Robin S. Goldstein, Raven Press Ltd. New York. 1993; pp 437-457.
26.    Adams RG, Harrison JF, Scott P. The development of cadmium induced proteinuria impaired renal function and osteomalacia in alkaline battery workers. Q. J. Med. 1969; 384: 25-436.
27.    Kanzantzis G. Renal tubular dysfunction and abnormalities of calcium metabolism in cadmium workers. Environ Health Perspect. 1979; 28: 155-159.
28.    Lauwerys R, Amery A, Bernard A, Braux P, Pierre Buchet, et al. Health effects of environmental exposure to cadmium, Objectives design and organization of the cadmiaial study a cross-section morbidity study carried out in Belgium. Environ Health Perspect. 1990; 87: 283-289.
29.    Buchet JP, Lauwerys R, Roels H, Bernard A, Brauaux P, et al. Renal effects of cadmium body burden of the general population. Lancet. 1990; 336: 699-702.
30.    Stassen J, Amery A, Bernard A, Bruauz P, Buchet JP, Claeys F, DePlaen P, Ducoffre G, Fagard R, Lauwerys RR, Lijnen P, Nick L, Saint Remy A, Roels H, Rondia D, Sartor F Thijs L. (N.A.). Environmental exposure to cadmium influences in calcium metabolism. A population study.
31.    Dunnick J, Fowler BA, Seiler, H. G. and Sigel, A. Eds. Handbook on the toxicity of inorganic compounds, New York: Marcel Dekker. 1985; pp155-174.
32.    Kjelstrom T, Friberg E, Kjelstrom T, Nordberg GF. Renal effects in cadmium and health a toxicological and epidemiology appraisal, Boca Raton, CRC Press. 1984; pp 47-86.
33.    Kagi JHR, Vasak K, Gilg DEO, Hunziker P, Bernhard WR, Good M. Structure of mammalian metallothionein.  Environ. Health Perspect. 1984; 54: 93-103.
34.    Garvey JS, Chang CC. Detection of circulating metallothionein in rats injected with zinc or cadmium. Science. 1981; 241: 805.
35.    Chang CC, Vander Mallie RJ, Garvey JS. A radioimmunoassay for human metallothionein. Toxicol. Appl Pharmacol. 1980; 55: 95.
36.    Shaikh ZA, Hirayama K. Metallothionein in the extracellular fluids as an index of cadmium toxicity. Environ. Health Perspect 1979; 28: 267-271.
37.    Vander Mallie RJ, Garvey JS. Radioimmunoassay of metallothionein. J Biol Chem. 1979; 254: 8416-8421.
38.    Bremner I, Mehra RK, Morrison JN, Wood AM.  Effects of dietary copper supplementation of rats on the occurrence of metallothionein-I in liver and its secretion into blood, bile, and urine. Biochem. J .1986; 235: 735-739.
39.    Mehra F K, Bremner I. Development of a radioimmunoassay for rat liver metallothionein-I and its application to the analysis of rat plasma and kidneys.  Biochem J. 1983; 213: 459-465.
40.    Foulkes EC. Renal transport of cadmium metallothionein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1978; 45: 505-512.
41.    Squibb KS, Pritchard JB, Fowler BA. The renal metabolism and toxicity of metallothionein, In Foulkes E.C. ed. Biological roles of metallothionein, New York Elsevier/North Holland.  1982; pp 181-192.
42.    Squibb KS, Pritchard JB, Fowler BA. Cadmium metallothionein nephropathy ultrastructural biochemical alteration and intracellular binding. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984; 229: 311-321.
43.    Squibb KS, Pritchard JB, Fowler BA. Intracellular metabolism and effects in circulating cadmium metallothionein in the kidney following acute treatment. Environ. Health Perspect. 1984; 54: 31-35.
44.    Squibb KS, Ridlington JW, Carmichael NG, Fowler BA. Early cellular effects of circulating cadmium-thionein on kidney proximal tubules. Environ Health Perspect. 1979; 28: 287-296.
45.    Weob M, Etienne AT. Studies on the toxicity and metabolism of cadmium thionein.  Biochem. Pharmacol. 1977; 26: 25-30.
46.    Fowler BA, Nordberg GF. The renal toxicity of cadmium metallothionein morphometric and X-ray microanalytical studies Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.  1978; 46: 609-623.
47.    Cherian MG, Goyer RA, Delaqurerriere Richardson L. Cadmium metallothionein induced nephrotoxicity, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1976; 38: 399-408.
48.    Cherian MG, Shaikh ZA. Metabolism of intravenously injected cadmium binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975; 65: 863-869.
49.    Shaikh ZA, Smith JC. The Biosynthesis of metallothionein in rat liver and Kidney after administration of cadmium. Chem Biol Intertact. 1976; 15: 327-336.
50.    Cain, K, Holt, DE. Studies of cadmium thionein induced nephropathy: the course of cadmium thionein uptake and degradation. Chem Biol Interact. 1983; 43: 233-237.
51.    Godkar PB. Textbook of Medical laboratory technology, Bhalani Publishing House, Bombay. 1994; pp 174-185.
52.    Panda S, Gupta P. Kar A. Protective role of ashwagandha in cadmium induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male mouse. Current Science. 1997; 72(8): 546-547.
53.    Ganesh R. Bharskar. Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Aspects of Pedalium murex Linn. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(3):183-188.
54.    Naveen K L, Grinton Josvi Veigas, Ananya Bhattacharjee, Karunakar Hegde. Nephroprotective Properties of Natural Herbs: A Systemic Review. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022; 12(1):52-6.
55.    Jaya Preethi Peesa. Nephroprotective Potential of Herbal Medicines: A Review. Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2013; Vol. 3: Issue 3, Pg 117-120.
56.    Jafri MA, Alam M Azhar, Javed Kalim.  Effect of Rheum emodi (Revand Hindi) on renal functions in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 96 (1-2): 121-125.
57.    Javaid Rasikh, Aslam Mohd, Javaid Raheela, Nizami Qudsia, Javed Kalim.  Extract of Ferula foetida regel reverses gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. EXCLI Journal. 2012; 11: 760.
58.    Misbahuddin Azhar, Mustehasan, Neelam Quddusi, Mahe Alam, Syed Gulnawaz Ahmad, Nighat Anjum. Nephroprotective Unani drug Khar-e-Khasak Khurd (Tribulus terrestris linn.).  International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences. 2020; 7 (1): 24-36.
59.    Seema Kashyap, Malti Sao, Harish Sharma, Amrendra Pratap Yadav, Maohan Lal Kori. Nephroprotective Effect of Luteolin against Gentamicin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats. Res. J. Pharma. Dosage Forms and Tech.2019; 11(3):181-185.
60.    Suman. Herbs: An alternative approach in Nephroprotection. Research J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2013; 5(1): 15-21.
61.    Shanish Antony A, Jayasankar K, Partha Deb Roy, Pankaj N, Dhamodaran P, Duraiswamy B, Elango K. Renal Protectant Activity of Cochlearia armoracia in 5/6-Nephrectomized Rat Model. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2010; 2(4): 300-302.
62.    Farhan Akhtar, Misbahuddin Azhar, Mohd Aslam. Nephroprotective. Effect of Khar-E-Khasak Khurd (Tribulus terristris Linn) on Gentamicin-Induced Experimental Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Nephrology 2020; 3(3): 6-13.
63.    Nitin M, Ifthekar S. Nephroprotective activity of Vigna mungo (Linn.) Hepper on gentamicin-induced renal damage in albino rats. Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2012; 4(5): 299-303.
64.    Abhirama BR, Shanmuga Sundaram Rajagopal, Mahadevan Nanjan. Nephroprotective effect of ethanol extract of Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC in cisplatin-induced experimental renal damage in rats. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(6): 1772-1779.
65.    Nadira Noushida, Preethi J. Shenoy, Rashmi R. Rao, S. Teerthanath, Sudhishma. Nephroprotective activity of betulinic acid in gentamicin induced murine model of Renotoxicity. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(3):1391-1396.
66.    Sarita Chaurasia, Vijender Singh Mahalwal, P Mani Chandrika. Ethano Medicinal Plants used as Nephroprotective in different Traditional Medicine: A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(2):1183-1189.
67.    Dileep Bharati, Swapnil Goyal, Anirbandeep Bose. Nephroprotective Activity of Dichloromethane Extract of Leaves of Alstonia scholaris Linn. in Gentamycin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Preventive Study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(2):1055-1058.
68.    Azhar MU, Akhtar F, Khan SA, Aslam M, Javed K, Jafri MA. Nephroprotective effect of Kulthi (Dolichos biflorus) in gentamicin treated rats. J Sci Pharm. 2003; 5 (2): 50-53.
69.    Azhar MU, Alam M, Aslam M, Javed K. Role Of Asgand (Withania Somnifera) In Cadmium Chloride Induced Nephrotoxicity In Rats.  Hamdard Medicus. 2005; 48 (3): 48-51.

Recomonded Articles:

Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (AJPTech.) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical sciences...... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/2231–5713 

Recent Articles